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Surname                    Initial(s)
Centre
                                                                      Paper Reference
No.

                                                                                                  Signature
Candidate
No.                                                           6 7 2 6                   0 1
                                        Paper Reference(s)


                                        6726/01                                                                      Examiner’s use only



                                        Edexcel GCE                                                                 Team Leader’s use only


                                        Physical Education
                                        Advanced                                                                           Question Leave
                                                                                                                           Number Blank
                                        Unit 6: Scientific Principles of Exercise
                                                                                                                              1
                                                and Performance                                                               2
                                        Thursday 4 June 2009 – Afternoon                                                      3
                                        Time: 1 hour 45 minutes                                                               4
                                                                                                                              5
                                                                                                                              6
                                        Materials required for examination    Items included with question papers             7
                                        Nil                                   Nil
                                                                                                                              8
                                                                                                                              9
                                                                                                                             10
Instructions to Candidates
In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initials and signature.
Check that you have the correct question paper.
Answer THREE questions. You MUST answer ONE question from EACH section.
Write your answers in the spaces provided in this question paper.
Do not use pencil. Use blue or black ink.
Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ).
If you change your mind, put a line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with a
cross ( ).

Information for Candidates
The marks for individual questions and the parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).
There are 10 questions in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 75.
There are 28 pages in this question paper. Any blank pages are indicated.

Advice to Candidates
You will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions and
arguments clearly and logically, including your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Candidates are advised to spend twice the amount of time on Section C, as it will be given twice the
weighting in accordance with the specification.
                                                                                                                           Total
This publication may be reproduced only in accordance with
Edexcel Limited copyright policy.
©2009 Edexcel Limited.                                                                                                    Turn over
 Printer’s Log. No.

 H34269A
W850/T6726/57570 5/5/4
                                                             *H34269A0128*
Leave
                                                                                                                                                 blank
                       SECTION A – EXERCISE & ENERGY SYSTEMS

     Answer only ONE question from this section. Write your answers in the spaces
                                    provided.

                  If you answer Question 1 put a cross in this box                                           .


1.   (a) An endurance athlete makes more efficient use of their energy than a power athlete.

         (i) Explain this statement.

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                                                                                                                                          (2)

         (ii) Describe in more detail the process by which the endurance athlete produces
              energy more efficiently.

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                                                                                                                                          (5)




2
                                    *H34269A0228*
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(b) When training regularly it is essential for an athlete to recover as quickly as possible
    after exercise.

    Describe the processes that take place during recovery that help to restore the body to
    its pre-exercise state.

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(c) How might an active cool down influence future performances?

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                                                                                                                                        (4)




                                                                                                                                                    3
                                  *H34269A0328*                                                                                                Turn over
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                                                                                                                                               blank
    (d) High intensity training may lead to an athlete experiencing DOMS.

        (i) Explain the term DOMS outlining both its causes and its physiological effects.

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            ................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        (4)

        (ii) Identify two strategies that can be employed in order to minimise the potential
             for DOMS.
             Explain the physiological benefits behind each strategy identified.

            ................................................................................................................................

            ................................................................................................................................

            ................................................................................................................................

            ................................................................................................................................

            ................................................................................................................................

            ................................................................................................................................
                                                                                                                                        (4)    Q1

                                                                                                               (Total 25 marks)




4
                                  *H34269A0428*
Leave
                                                                                                                                                       blank

                   If you answer Question 2 put a cross in this box                                             .

2.   (a) Energy can be chemical, kinetic or potential. In terms of athletic performance define
         each type and provide an example of each.

         .......................................................................................................................................

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                                                                                                                                            (6)




                                                                                                                                                        5
                                      *H34269A0528*                                                                                                Turn over
Leave
                                                                                                                                               blank
    (b) It is not uncommon for an athlete to lose a significant amount of weight during a
        prolonged sporting activity.

        (i) Identify the principle reason for weight loss during an activity and explain why
            this might happen.

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                                                                                                                                        (4)




6
                                  *H34269A0628*
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2009 paper

  • 1. Surname Initial(s) Centre Paper Reference No. Signature Candidate No. 6 7 2 6 0 1 Paper Reference(s) 6726/01 Examiner’s use only Edexcel GCE Team Leader’s use only Physical Education Advanced Question Leave Number Blank Unit 6: Scientific Principles of Exercise 1 and Performance 2 Thursday 4 June 2009 – Afternoon 3 Time: 1 hour 45 minutes 4 5 6 Materials required for examination Items included with question papers 7 Nil Nil 8 9 10 Instructions to Candidates In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initials and signature. Check that you have the correct question paper. Answer THREE questions. You MUST answer ONE question from EACH section. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this question paper. Do not use pencil. Use blue or black ink. Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ). If you change your mind, put a line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with a cross ( ). Information for Candidates The marks for individual questions and the parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2). There are 10 questions in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 75. There are 28 pages in this question paper. Any blank pages are indicated. Advice to Candidates You will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions and arguments clearly and logically, including your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling. Candidates are advised to spend twice the amount of time on Section C, as it will be given twice the weighting in accordance with the specification. Total This publication may be reproduced only in accordance with Edexcel Limited copyright policy. ©2009 Edexcel Limited. Turn over Printer’s Log. No. H34269A W850/T6726/57570 5/5/4 *H34269A0128*
  • 2. Leave blank SECTION A – EXERCISE & ENERGY SYSTEMS Answer only ONE question from this section. Write your answers in the spaces provided. If you answer Question 1 put a cross in this box . 1. (a) An endurance athlete makes more efficient use of their energy than a power athlete. (i) Explain this statement. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (2) (ii) Describe in more detail the process by which the endurance athlete produces energy more efficiently. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (5) 2 *H34269A0228*
  • 3. Leave blank (b) When training regularly it is essential for an athlete to recover as quickly as possible after exercise. Describe the processes that take place during recovery that help to restore the body to its pre-exercise state. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) (c) How might an active cool down influence future performances? ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) 3 *H34269A0328* Turn over
  • 4. Leave blank (d) High intensity training may lead to an athlete experiencing DOMS. (i) Explain the term DOMS outlining both its causes and its physiological effects. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (4) (ii) Identify two strategies that can be employed in order to minimise the potential for DOMS. Explain the physiological benefits behind each strategy identified. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (4) Q1 (Total 25 marks) 4 *H34269A0428*
  • 5. Leave blank If you answer Question 2 put a cross in this box . 2. (a) Energy can be chemical, kinetic or potential. In terms of athletic performance define each type and provide an example of each. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) 5 *H34269A0528* Turn over
  • 6. Leave blank (b) It is not uncommon for an athlete to lose a significant amount of weight during a prolonged sporting activity. (i) Identify the principle reason for weight loss during an activity and explain why this might happen. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (4) 6 *H34269A0628*
  • 7. Leave blank (ii) Explain the physiological effects of weight loss during performance. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (7) 7 *H34269A0728* Turn over
  • 8. Leave blank (c) Explain muscular contraction as described by the sliding filament theory. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (8) Q2 (Total 25 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION A: 25 MARKS 8 *H34269A0828*
  • 9. Leave blank SECTION B – SPORTS MECHANICS & SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY Answer only ONE question from this section. Write your answers in the spaces provided. If you answer Question 3 put a cross in this box . 3. (a) Define the terms ‘Vector’ and ‘Scalar’ and give examples from sport to explain your answer. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) (b) Figure 1 shows the horizontal velocity and angle at take-off for a long jumper. 19º 8.00 ms–1 Figure 1 Calculate, showing your working, the long jumper’s resultant take-off velocity. Velocity ........................................................ (3) 9 *H34269A0928* Turn over
  • 10. Leave blank (c) Explain how the shape, size and weight of an object can affect its flight path, and give examples from sport to highlight your answer. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) (d) Explain how top spin influences the flight of a ball. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) 10 *H34269A01028*
  • 11. Leave blank (e) State Newton’s Second Law, and use it to explain the motion of a hockey ball as it is passed along the ground from one player and stopped by his team mate. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) Q3 (Total 25 marks) 11 *H34269A01128* Turn over
  • 12. Leave blank If you answer Question 4 put a cross in this box . 4. (a) (i) Sketch a diagram that shows air resistance, lift and drag acting on a discus in flight. (3) (ii) Explain how lift force is achieved in discus and how it can be optimised. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (6) 12 *H34269A01228*
  • 13. Leave blank (b) State Newton’s First and Third Laws. Using these laws explain the motion of a football as it is passed along the ground from one player and stopped by her team mate. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) (c) Using sporting examples, identify and explain the movement that occurs around each of the body’s principle axes of rotation. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) 13 *H34269A01328* Turn over
  • 14. Leave blank (d) There are a number of ways that a swimmer could try to minimise the effects of drag. Identify the strategies a swimmer may use to reduce drag, and explain how they contribute to reducing drag. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) Q4 (Total 25 marks) 14 *H34269A01428*
  • 15. Leave blank If you answer Question 5 put a cross in this box . 5. (a) Associationist theories attempt to explain that learning takes place in a particular way. Using examples from sport, identify how a coach could alter the stimulus-response bond of a performer. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) (b) Explain the Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) 15 *H34269A01528* Turn over
  • 16. Leave blank (c) Name the two dimensions of achievement motivation and apply each to a sporting example. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) 16 *H34269A01628*
  • 17. Leave blank (d) Attribution Theory states success or failure can be attributed to four different factors. Describe the relationship between these four factors and explain how a leader should use them after success or failure. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (8) 17 *H34269A01728* Turn over
  • 18. Leave blank (e) Cottrell’s theory of Evaluation Apprehension suggests that the presence of a crowd can either facilitate or inhibit an athlete’s performance. Using Cottrell’s theory explain how the performance of different athletes may be affected. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) Q5 (Total 25 marks) 18 *H34269A01828*
  • 19. Leave blank If you answer Question 6 put a cross in this box . 6. (a) The terms aggression and assertion are often confused with one another. Define these two terms and use examples from sport that will show how these terms differ. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) (b) Cognitive and somatic are two types of anxiety that can affect a performer. Define and explain both types of anxiety. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) 19 *H34269A01928* Turn over
  • 20. Leave blank (c) Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez Faire and Paternalistic are four styles of Leadership. By using examples from sport, describe and explain two of these styles of Leadership. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) (d) Hollander’s theory identifies that personality has three layers. Identify the three layers and explain how each can affect a person’s behaviour. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) 20 *H34269A02028*
  • 21. Leave blank (e) Suggest strategies that a coach of a sports team may use to eliminate the aggressive tendencies of a player within their team. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) Q6 (Total 25 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION B: 25 MARKS 21 *H34269A02128* Turn over
  • 22. Leave blank SECTION C – A SYNOPTIC ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES Answer only ONE question from this section. Each question is worth 25 marks. Candidates are advised to spend twice the amount of time on Section C, as it will be given twice the weighting in accordance with the specification. 7. Discuss how in the 21st century technology has improved sporting performance and preparation. (Total 25 marks) 8. Discuss the physical, mental and technical preparations an athlete could undertake in the final 72 hours before performance in order to maximise achievement. (Total 25 marks) 9. Discuss the potential physiological, psychological and mechanical effects from the use of supplements and drugs as ergogenic aids. (Total 25 marks) 10. Discuss how the concepts of nature and nurture influence the long-term development of elite athletes. (Total 25 marks) Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ). If you change your mind, put a line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with a cross ( ). Chosen question number: Question 7 Question 8 Question 9 Question 10 Write your answer to Section C here: ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 22 *H34269A02228*
  • 23. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 23 *H34269A02328* Turn over
  • 24. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 24 *H34269A02428*
  • 25. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 25 *H34269A02528* Turn over
  • 26. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 26 *H34269A02628*
  • 27. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 27 *H34269A02728* Turn over
  • 28. Leave blank ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................... Section C ...................................................................................................................................................... (Total 25 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION C: 25 MARKS TOTAL FOR PAPER: 75 MARKS END 28 *H34269A02828*