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2007 paper

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2007 paper

  1. 1. Surname Initial(s)Centre Paper ReferenceNo. SignatureCandidateNo. 6 7 2 6 0 1 Paper Reference(s) 6726/01 Examiner’s use only Edexcel GCE Team Leader’s use only Physical Education Advanced Question Leave Number Blank Unit 6: Scientific Principles of Exercise 1 and Performance 2 Friday 15 June 2007 – Afternoon 3 Time: 1 hour 45 minutes 4 5 6 Materials required for examination Items included with question papers 7 Nil Nil 8 9 10Instructions to CandidatesIn the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initials and signature.Check that you have the correct question paper.Answer THREE questions in the spaces provided in this question paper.You MUST answer ONE question from EACH section.Do not use pencil. Use blue or black ink.Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ).If you change your mind, put a line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with across ( ).Information for CandidatesThe marks for individual questions and the parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).There are 10 questions in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 75.There are 32 pages in this question paper. Any blank pages are indicated.Advice to CandidatesYou will be assessed on your ability to organise and present information, ideas, descriptions andarguments clearly and logically, including your use of grammar, punctuation and spelling. TotalThis publication may be reproduced only in accordance withEdexcel Limited copyright policy.©2007 Edexcel Limited. Turn over Printer’s Log. No. N25095AW850/T6726/57570 5/5/2/2/ *N25095A0132*
  2. 2. Leave blank SECTION A – EXERCISE & ENERGY SYSTEMS Answer only ONE question from this section. Write your answers in the spaces provided. If you answer Question 1 put a cross in this box .1. (a) (i) Define the concepts of energy and power and give the unit of measure for each. Energy: ................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ Unit of measure: .................................................................................................... Power: .................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ Unit of measure: .................................................................................................... (4) (ii) Calculate the power output of an athlete who has travelled 1500 m in 2 minutes on a cycle ergometer with a fixed load resistance of 10 kg attached. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (5)2 *N25095A0232*
  3. 3. Leave blank(b) (i) Explain the all or none law in relation to strength of muscular contraction. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (3) (ii) Explain the sequence of events that cause a muscle to contract, according to the sliding filament theory. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (7) 3 *N25095A0332* Turn over
  4. 4. Leave blank (c) In the context of ATP breakdown and re-synthesis, define the terms exothermic, endothermic and coupled reactions and give an example of each. Exothermic: ................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... Example: ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Endothermic: .............................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... Example: ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Coupled reactions: ...................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Example: ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) Q1 (Total 25 marks)4 *N25095A0432*
  5. 5. Leave blank If you answer Question 2 put a cross in this box ..2. (a) Explain how a neural impulse is transferred from the central nervous system to skeletal muscle. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (7) 5 *N25095A0532* Turn over
  6. 6. Leave blank (b) The body utilises three energy pathways to re-synthesise ATP. (i) Name the three pathways and describe how each works. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (9)6 *N25095A0632*
  7. 7. Leave blank (ii) Identify a sporting activity that would utilise each pathway as its primary energy provider and explain why. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (6)(c) Define the term OBLA and describe how an athlete may use this knowledge. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (3) Q2 (Total 25 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION A: 25 MARKS 7 *N25095A0732* Turn over
  8. 8. Leave blank SECTION B – SPORTS MECHANICS & SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY Answer only ONE question from this section. Write your answers in the spaces provided. If you answer Question 3 put a cross in this box .3. D C A B Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the path of a ball as it is passed along the ground, around a square in a football practice, between the players A, B, C and D. Each side of the square is 15 m in length. (a) Showing all your workings, if the ball starts at player A, calculate: (i) The distance the ball has travelled when it reaches C. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (1) (ii) The displacement of the ball as it reaches C. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (3)8 *N25095A0832*
  9. 9. Leave blank (iii) The displacement of the ball as it completes one circuit. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (1)(b) (i) It takes the ball 2 seconds to travel from C to D. Calculate the average speed of the ball as it moves from C to D. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (1) (ii) The speed of the ball is measured as it leaves D and as it arrives at A, and the values below are recorded. Speed at D Speed at A 10 ms-1 6 ms-1 It takes the ball 1.9 seconds to travel from D to A. Calculate the average acceleration of the ball between the two points. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (2) (iii) State Newton’s Second Law, and use it to explain your answer to part (b) (ii). ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (3) 9 *N25095A0932* Turn over
  10. 10. Leave blank (iv) State Newton’s First and Third Laws, and use them to explain the motion of the ball in the above practice. First Law ................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ Third Law .............................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (6) (c) (i) Draw and label a diagram that shows air resistance, lift and drag acting on a discus in flight in relation to its direction of travel. (3)10 *N25095A01032*
  11. 11. Leave blank(ii) Explain how lift force is achieved in discus and how it can be optimised. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (5) Q3 (Total 25 marks) 11 *N25095A01132* Turn over
  12. 12. Leave blank If you answer Question 4 put a cross in this box .4. (a) Identify the body’s three axes of rotation and use sporting examples to explain the movement that occurs around each one. Axis ............................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Example ........................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................... Axis ............................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Example ........................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................... Axis ............................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Example ........................................................................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................... (6)12 *N25095A01232*
  13. 13. Leave blank(b) Explain how back spin influences a ball’s flight. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6) 13 *N25095A01332* Turn over
  14. 14. Leave blank (c) (i) Label the diagram below to show the external forces acting on a swimmer in relation to the direction of motion. (3) (ii) There are a number of strategies that a swimmer uses in order to minimise the effects of one of these forces. Identify which force the swimmer attempts to minimise and explain how the swimmer can reduce this force. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (5)14 *N25095A01432*
  15. 15. Leave blank(d) During the time a sprinter’s foot is in contact with the ground it experiences different forces. Draw two force/time graphs: • one to show the force acting on the foot as the athlete accelerates • one to show the force acting on the foot as the athlete decelerates (5) Q4 (Total 25 marks) 15 *N25095A01532* Turn over
  16. 16. Leave blank If you answer Question 5 put a cross in this box .5. (a) Using examples from sport, define the terms aggression, instrumental aggression and assertion. Aggression: .................................................................................................................. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Instrumental aggression: ........................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... Assertion: ..................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (6)16 *N25095A01632*
  17. 17. Leave blank(b) List five strategies a coach can use to reduce aggressive behaviour in a player. 1 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 2 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 3 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 5 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5)(c) Explain how a coach would structure their practice sessions if they were applying the cognitive approach to learning. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) 17 *N25095A01732* Turn over
  18. 18. Leave blank (d) Explain the effect that the presence of others may have on sports performance. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) (e) Name four strategies that a performer or coach could use to manage the effect of a crowd on performance. 1 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 2 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 3 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4) Q5 (Total 25 marks)18 *N25095A01832*
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  20. 20. Leave blank If you answer Question 6 put a cross in this box .6. (a) Identify and explain one method of personality assessment, highlighting the drawbacks of your chosen method. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) (b) Bandura suggested that self-efficacy is influenced by four factors. Define these four factors. 1 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 2 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 3 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... 4 .................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (4)20 *N25095A02032*
  21. 21. Leave blank(c) What is learned helplessness and how can it be overcome? Use examples from sport to support your answer. ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................... (5) 21 *N25095A02132* Turn over
  22. 22. Leave blank (d) (i) According to the multi-dimensional approach, anxiety is made up of more than one component. Explain how each component is related to sports performance. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (6)22 *N25095A02232*
  23. 23. Leave blank(ii) Suggest strategies for managing pre-competition anxiety. ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................ (5) Q6 (Total 25 marks) TOTAL FOR SECTION B: 25 MARKS 23 *N25095A02332* Turn over
  24. 24. Leave blank SECTION C – A SYNOPTIC ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES Answer ONE question only from this section Each question is worth 25 marks Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ). If you change your mind, put a line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with a cross ( ).Chosen question number: Question 7 Question 8 Question 9 Question 107. Discuss the various long term strategies undertaken by elite athletes in preparation for global competitions. (Total 25 marks)8. Discuss the view that elite athletes are born, not made. (Total 25 marks)9. Discuss how modern technology aids an athlete’s preparation for competition. (Total 25 marks)10. Discuss what an athlete would do during the final 72 hours prior to competition in order to maximise performance. (Total 25 marks)Write your answer to Section C here:...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 *N25095A02432*
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