Science and Technology in the Global Arena: An Introduction to Science, Technology and International Affairs<br />Professo...
SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS<br />Overcoming Technophobia<br />What is STIA and Why is it Important?<br />What is STIA 305 Ab...
This course can NOT teach science or technology: That’s impossible in one or a few terms -- but it isn’t necessary, either...
Get into the Habit of Reading about Science and Technology: It’s Fun!<br />Scientific American<br />Nature<br />MIT Techno...
Overcoming Technophobia<br />You’ve studied technical subjects before (guerrilla warfare, macro-economics, trade, ethnic c...
What is STIA andWhy is it important?<br />
Definition: STIA is the Study of the Mutual Impact of Science, Technology, Economics, Politics and Culture in an Internati...
STIA Draws on Concepts from<br />Natural Science<br />Political Science<br />Economics<br />Philosophy<br />Law<br />Cultu...
At Georgetown, STIA Includes<br />Environment and Energy<br />Security<br />Growth and Development<br />Global Health<br />
These are All Inter-Related.Don’t ‘Stovepipe’ Your Interest<br />Environmental Health<br />Environment and Security<br />E...
Foreign Affairs Generalists Need Science, Technology and STIA, so that they can <br />Recognize S&T-Intensive Issues<br />...
Yet Foreign Affairs Practitioners are Not Expected to have Even a Basic Knowledge of Science and Technology. <br />S&T are...
Course Themes: What is STIA 305 About?<br />
STIA 305 Provides a Framework for Understanding the Intersection of Science, Technology and International Affairs (STIA)<b...
We Will Examine Issues from the Point of View of<br />Government Policy<br />Business Strategy<br />NGO Advocacy<br />Citi...
What Do We Mean by  Science and Technology?<br />Computers<br />Hardware<br />Progress<br />Better Life<br />Problems<br /...
Our Definitions<br />Science is Knowledge of the Natural World Achieved through the Scientific Method -- (or the Scientifi...
Initial Preconceptions re Science and Technology<br />
HOW DO WE VIEW SCIENCE?<br />A Source of Truth to Power?<br />A Source of Bothersome Knowledge?<br />A Cloudy Crystal Ball...
HOW DO WE VIEW TECHNOLOGY?<br />An Uncontrolled Juggernaut?<br />An Unbottled Genie?<br />A Pandora’s Box<br />The Product...
Broad Organizing Questions(cf. ‘Welcoming Remarks’)<br />Should Government Encourage and Guide Scientific Research and  Te...
Science and Technology Raise More Specific Questions that are Critical to International Affairs<br />Are Humans Changing t...
 STIA Works Both Ways: <br />Science &Technology Affect International Affairs.<br />International Affairs Affect Science &...
Impact of S&T on World Affairs<br />
Science and Technology Strongly Influenced Recent Major World Developments<br />US Profligacy, Plus the Rise of China and ...
Export of Service Jobs Revives Debate over Productivity, Competitiveness & Income Distribution<br />SARS Epidemic Hurt Asi...
Science and Technology Give Rise to Important Issues . . .<br />Should Poor Countries Have to Compensate Drug Companies fo...
. . . And to  Some Interesting Puzzles<br />What Sets the Scene for a Technological Revolution?<br />Why, for Example, Did...
Conversely, World Affairs Have a Strong Impact on Science And Technology<br />
Economic and Social Forces Influence the Advance of S&T, Raising Important Ethical Issues<br />Technology Responds Directl...
The Impact of Science and Technology May be Missed because they are Key Elements of Larger Phenomena<br />Environment<br /...
So Science and Technology are Not Autonomous; They Respond to Social, Cultural, Economic, & Political ForcesEXAMPLES:<br /...
But the Impact of Technology, Once it has been Developed and Diffused, May be Very Hard to Control: <br />viz., THE AUTOMO...
In Summary, <br />Science and Technology Affect International Affairs, and International Affairs Affect Science and Techno...
Next Class: Dinosaurs and the Dynamic of Science<br />How a Scientific Hypothesis Becomes a Scientific FactDO THE READING ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

GU STIA305 01

621 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
621
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

GU STIA305 01

  1. 1. Science and Technology in the Global Arena: An Introduction to Science, Technology and International Affairs<br />Professor Charles Weiss<br />Georgetown School of Foreign Service<br />
  2. 2. SOME INTRODUCTORY REMARKS<br />Overcoming Technophobia<br />What is STIA and Why is it Important?<br />What is STIA 305 About?<br />STIA Works Both Ways<br />Impact of Science & Technology on World Affairs<br />Impact of World Affairs on Science and Technology<br />
  3. 3. This course can NOT teach science or technology: That’s impossible in one or a few terms -- but it isn’t necessary, either:<br />Many Major Figures in Science Policy and Technology Management were not Scientists or Engineers. But they Respected the Material and Mastered it When They Needed to Do So. <br />
  4. 4. Get into the Habit of Reading about Science and Technology: It’s Fun!<br />Scientific American<br />Nature<br />MIT Technology Review<br />Science News<br />Weekly Science Sections<br />New York Times<br />Economist<br />Washington Post<br />For High-Tech Business<br />Business 2.0<br />Fast Company<br />Wired<br />On Television<br />NOVA<br />National Geographic<br />Discovery<br />
  5. 5. Overcoming Technophobia<br />You’ve studied technical subjects before (guerrilla warfare, macro-economics, trade, ethnic conflict)<br />Don’t Panic: You Weren’t Scared of Science in High School. <br /> Why Should You Be Now? STIA Will Give You Tools and Practice, and Will Help You Detect ‘Voodoo Science.’<br />
  6. 6. What is STIA andWhy is it important?<br />
  7. 7. Definition: STIA is the Study of the Mutual Impact of Science, Technology, Economics, Politics and Culture in an International Context<br />
  8. 8. STIA Draws on Concepts from<br />Natural Science<br />Political Science<br />Economics<br />Philosophy<br />Law<br />Culture and Politics<br />‘Science, Technology and Society’ <br />(STS: History, Sociology and Philosophy of Science)<br />
  9. 9. At Georgetown, STIA Includes<br />Environment and Energy<br />Security<br />Growth and Development<br />Global Health<br />
  10. 10. These are All Inter-Related.Don’t ‘Stovepipe’ Your Interest<br />Environmental Health<br />Environment and Security<br />Environment and Growth<br />Energy and Growth<br />Energy and Security<br />Energy and Business<br />Energy and Development<br />Health and Development<br />Health and Security<br />Development and Security<br />Growth and Security<br />
  11. 11. Foreign Affairs Generalists Need Science, Technology and STIA, so that they can <br />Recognize S&T-Intensive Issues<br />Recognize Typical Patterns of Interaction of ST&IR<br />Follow Scientific Arguments<br />Consult Knowledgably with Experts<br />Understand Technical Articles and Reports<br />Assess Expert Evidence and Disagreements among Experts<br />Generalists Deal with Many Technical Issues – e.g., Macroeconomics, Ethnic Conflict, Guerrilla War. Why not Science and Technology?<br />
  12. 12. Yet Foreign Affairs Practitioners are Not Expected to have Even a Basic Knowledge of Science and Technology. <br />S&T are Neglected in Academic Curricula<br />Present Company Excepted! (preach to the choir!)<br />Technophobia in The Foreign Affairs Establishment<br />The US State Department Appointed a Science and Technology Adviser Only Ten Years Ago!<br />There are Still No Questions on Science in the Foreign Service Examination!<br />
  13. 13. Course Themes: What is STIA 305 About?<br />
  14. 14. STIA 305 Provides a Framework for Understanding the Intersection of Science, Technology and International Affairs (STIA)<br />How to Approach Policy or Management Issues Involving Science and Technology<br />How Science and Technology Relate To Each Other and To Everything Else<br />How to Address Issues of Equity, Sustainability and Philosophical Values Raised by the Advance of Scientific Knowledge and Technological Know-How<br />
  15. 15. We Will Examine Issues from the Point of View of<br />Government Policy<br />Business Strategy<br />NGO Advocacy<br />Citizen Awareness<br />Research Ethics<br />Americans and People from the Rest of the World (and their Governments)<br />All Confront the Same Issues, but from Different Angles<br />
  16. 16. What Do We Mean by Science and Technology?<br />Computers<br />Hardware<br />Progress<br />Better Life<br />Problems<br />Materialism<br />
  17. 17. Our Definitions<br />Science is Knowledge of the Natural World Achieved through the Scientific Method -- (or the Scientific Method Itself)<br />Technology is a Way of Solving a Practical Problem through Organized Technical Knowledge<br />
  18. 18. Initial Preconceptions re Science and Technology<br />
  19. 19. HOW DO WE VIEW SCIENCE?<br />A Source of Truth to Power?<br />A Source of Bothersome Knowledge?<br />A Cloudy Crystal Ball?<br />A Threat to Received Wisdom?<br />The Product of Power-Crazed Genius?<br />
  20. 20. HOW DO WE VIEW TECHNOLOGY?<br />An Uncontrolled Juggernaut?<br />An Unbottled Genie?<br />A Pandora’s Box<br />The Product of “Social Construction”?<br />A Hobbled Giant?<br />The Enabler of Globalization, Proliferation and other ‘Macro’ Issues<br />A Tool of Foreign Policy?<br />A Source of Power for the Powerful?<br />A Source of Opportunity to the Neglected?<br />
  21. 21. Broad Organizing Questions(cf. ‘Welcoming Remarks’)<br />Should Government Encourage and Guide Scientific Research and Technological Development? Why? How?<br />How do Policy Makers and Managers Deal with Scientific Uncertainty and Technological Risk?<br />How Do We Address the Ethical and Philosophical Issues Raised by the Increase in Scientific Knowledge and Technological Know-How?<br />What is the Scientific Process? How is it Influenced by Social, Economic, Political and Cultural Context?<br />How are Technology and its Impact Influenced by this Context?<br />How do Science and Technology Influence Each Other?<br />Are Science and Technology Subject to Human Control?<br />
  22. 22. Science and Technology Raise More Specific Questions that are Critical to International Affairs<br />Are Humans Changing the Earth’s Climate? (YES)<br />Can Terrorists Make a Nuclear Device? Can Iran??<br />Can New Energy Technology Relieve Oil Dependence and Reduce Global Warming? <br />Is an Influenza Pandemic a Real Danger and if so, Can We Prevent It?<br />Can the Internet Undermine Authoritarian Governments?<br />Can Information Technology Catch Terrorists without Endangering Civil Liberties?<br />Can Developing Countries Compete in the New Globalized Knowledge Economy?<br />
  23. 23. STIA Works Both Ways: <br />Science &Technology Affect International Affairs.<br />International Affairs Affect Science &Technology.<br />Science & Technology Affect Each Other --That’s Why It’s Called Science, Technology AND (rather than IN) International Affairs!<br />
  24. 24. Impact of S&T on World Affairs<br />
  25. 25. Science and Technology Strongly Influenced Recent Major World Developments<br />US Profligacy, Plus the Rise of China and India [‘The Oiloholics’], Contributes to the Spike in Oil Prices and the Geopolitical Strength of Non-Democratic Regimes<br />Telecommunications and Computers Enable Financial Transfers to Dwarf Goods Flows<br />Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Threatens Catastrophe from Terrorists or Rogue States<br />Climate Issues Threaten the World Trade Regime<br />AIDS and Other Epidemic Diseases Drive the Demographic Future of Russia and Africa<br />
  26. 26. Export of Service Jobs Revives Debate over Productivity, Competitiveness & Income Distribution<br />SARS Epidemic Hurt Asia & US Industries Dependent on Asian Suppliers; Is H1N1 or H5N1 Flu Next?<br />Internet Raises Issues of Control (Governance), Privacy and Civil Liberties. A Major Renegotiation Looms.<br />The Revolution in Military Technology Produces a Dramatic Victory in the Invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, but Can’t Control Either Country<br />Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), Suicide Bombers, and Truck Bombs – all Low-Tech Devices – Hold our High-Tech Military at Bay<br />Innovative, Mathematics-Based Technology for Slicing and Dicing Risk Brings about World Financial Crisis<br />
  27. 27. Science and Technology Give Rise to Important Issues . . .<br />Should Poor Countries Have to Compensate Drug Companies for Intellectual Property Rights to HIV/AIDS Medicines?<br />Why Shouldn’t All Nations Have the Right to Nuclear Weapons?<br />Is China’s Coal Policy any of Our Business? Is Our Coal Policy any of China’s Business?<br />Should the World Health Organization Have the Right to Demand Statistics from Sovereign Nations on the Prevalence of Epidemic Disease?<br />Can the US Demand that China Allow Pro-Democracy Content on its Internet? Can the Cayman Islands Demand that the U.S. Allow On-Line Gambling?<br />
  28. 28. . . . And to Some Interesting Puzzles<br />What Sets the Scene for a Technological Revolution?<br />Why, for Example, Did an Revolution in Information Technology Take Off, but one in Alternative Energy (which is desperately needed) has not?<br />When Does a Scientific Consensus Lead to International Action?<br />The Damage to the Ozone Hole Seems to be Under Control, but Global Warming is Not<br />Scientists Think that any Problems with Genetically Modified Crops are Manageable, but the European Public is not Convinced<br />
  29. 29. Conversely, World Affairs Have a Strong Impact on Science And Technology<br />
  30. 30. Economic and Social Forces Influence the Advance of S&T, Raising Important Ethical Issues<br />Technology Responds Directly to Markets<br />(and hence to policies, attitudes, habits or values that affect income distribution and markets)<br />Most Technology is Commercialized by Businesses<br />Environmentalists, Health & Security Students Take Note<br />Science Responds Indirectly to Economic and Social Forces: Why is there No Malaria Vaccine?<br />Research funds come from public or private sources<br />Researchers are influenced by society’s definition of important problems, and other social values<br />
  31. 31. The Impact of Science and Technology May be Missed because they are Key Elements of Larger Phenomena<br />Environment<br />Globalization<br />Competitiveness<br />Nuclear Proliferation<br />Terrorism and Homeland Security<br />Epidemic Disease<br />Space Policy<br />
  32. 32. So Science and Technology are Not Autonomous; They Respond to Social, Cultural, Economic, & Political ForcesEXAMPLES:<br />Energy Conservation<br />Stem Cells<br />Genetically Modified Crops<br />Text Messaging<br />Teaching of Evolution!<br />Even the Atomic Bomb!<br />
  33. 33. But the Impact of Technology, Once it has been Developed and Diffused, May be Very Hard to Control: <br />viz., THE AUTOMOBILE<br />viz., NUCLEAR WEAPONS <br />viz., THE WEB<br />Some of These are ‘Enabling’ Technologies, Some are Technologies Out of Control, and Some are Both <br />
  34. 34. In Summary, <br />Science and Technology Affect International Affairs, and International Affairs Affect Science and Technology<br />Science and Technology Are Affected by a Variety of Social, Economic and Cultural Forces, and Raise Important Issues of Ethics and Values.<br />We’ll spend the Term Examining These and Other Themes.<br />
  35. 35. Next Class: Dinosaurs and the Dynamic of Science<br />How a Scientific Hypothesis Becomes a Scientific FactDO THE READING – <br />and USE THE HAND-OUT <br />TO GUIDE YOUR <br />UNDERSTANDING.<br />

×