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Cyberethics for teachers, students, and the school community


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Cyberethics for teachers, students, and the school community

  1. 1. Cyberethics for Teachers, Students, and the School Community David Whittier and Dana Susko School of Education Boston University10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 1
  2. 2. Cyber Ethics• Cyberspace - “extends across that immense region of electron states, microwaves, magnetic fields, light pulses and thought which sci-fi writer William Gibson named Cyberspace” (Barlow, 1990).Map from no-this-is-a-map-of-the-internet/• Ethics: – Rational examination of morality – Evaluation of people‟s behavior(Quinn, 2013)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 2
  3. 3. Cyberspace Psychology10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 3
  4. 4. Cyberspace PsychologyAbstract Features:  Intangibility  The sense of Invisibility  The appearance of Anonymity  Reduction or Absence of Time Referents  More Control of time and pace of interactions  Geographic Transparency  Tunnel Vision10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 4
  5. 5. Internet Safety and Cyberbullying10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 5
  6. 6. Internet Safety and Cyberbullying• Addressing the problem from the bottom up. – What ethics do your students bring to their behavior online in particular and in cyberspace in general? – Respect – Responsibility – Honesty –Trust – Empathy10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 6
  7. 7. Thinking Empathy Abstracted from the physical world, cyberspace can be called a more cognitive environment “…a purely cognitive perspective slights the essential brain-to-brain social glue . . . and so excludes social talents that have been key to human survival.” (Goleman, 2006)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 7
  8. 8. Empathy in Cyberspace?10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 8
  9. 9. The Heart Part – The Empathy heart helps us feel what others feel –the affective or feeling part of how we relate to others. The Head Part – helps us understand another‟s perspective through thinking about it - the cognitive or thinking part of how we relate to others.10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 9
  10. 10. Measuring Empathy• Empathic Concern (EC) – measures people‟s other-oriented feelings of sympathy for the misfortunes of others - a more emotional component of empathy• Perspective Taking (PT) – is a more cognitive or intellectual component, measuring people‟s tendencies to imagine other people‟s points of view. • Konrath, S., O‟Brien, E., &Hsing, C., (2011)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 10
  11. 11. Declines EC and PT 1999 to 2009 120 100 1999 80 Measuring 60 2009 EC 2009 Empathy 40 PT 20 0 1999 2009• From 1979 to 1999,little change in the EC scores of college undergraduates.• From 2000 to 2009Konrath et al. report: – 48% decline in EC and – 34% decline in PT.10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 11
  12. 12. • Time spent social networking is up 82% from previous years as of 2009 (Whitney, 2010).• Cell phone use has risen dramatically: The average American teen now sends and receives around 1,500 text messages per month, and nearly all teens use their phones for functions other than talking, such as playing games and listening to music (Pew Research Center, 2009).• Such technology is easy and pervasive: More than 100 million people access Face- book with their cell phones (Media Literacy Clearinghouse, 2010)• More Americans now than ever before report using television and the Internet simultaneously (Nielsen, 2009).• 29.9% of television-owning households in the United States now contain at least four televisions• Television viewing recently reached an all-time high (Reisinger, 2010; Media Literacy Clearinghouse, 2010).10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 12
  13. 13. Visualizing Growth in Media Use• use.html10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 13
  14. 14. What are apps used for? Sept., 2011 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 14
  15. 15. • Average American is exposed to a 350% increase in total information outside of work compared to only 30 years ago (Bohn & Short, 2009).• As a result, we speculate that one likely contributor to declining empathy is the rising prominence of personal technology and media use in everyday life. (p. 188). Sara H. Konrath Research Center for Group Dynamics Institute for Social Research University of Michigan10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 15
  16. 16. Who‟s who in Cyberspace?• With so much time online and in cyberspace, we all must now negotiate our identity in cyberspace.10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 16
  17. 17. Online Identity“I can’t wait to see what you’re like online.”10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 17
  18. 18. Identity in CyberspaceResearch suggests that onlineidentities do not stray far fromidentities in the physical world.10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 18
  19. 19. Identity: Real and Virtual“Researchers confirmedrelationships betweenadolescents‟ real and virtualidentities. ”“ The adolescent‟s behavior inthe virtual environment usuallycorresponds with theadolescent‟s real identity to someextent, while allowingexperimentation. ” (Vybiral, Smahel, and Divinova, 2004, p. 176) 10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 19
  20. 20. Identity Dating Online“ People on Internet dating sites tended to „„stretch the truth a bit.” Despite„truth- stretching‟activities, identities produced on Internet dating sites were found to be quite ‘realistic and honest,’ (Ellison et al., 2006). ” (cited in Zhao et al., 2008, P. 1819) 10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 20
  21. 21. Facebook . . .“ Identity appeared to be highly socially desirable identities [that] individuals aspire to have offline but have not yet been able ” to achieve for one reason or another. (Zhao et al., 2008, P. 1830)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 21
  22. 22. On Facebook• People do not create a fictional identity but rather “show” that part of their self they think is most socially acceptable. (Zhao, Grasmuck, & Martin, 2008)• „„True selves,” „„real selves,” and „„hoped-for possible selves” are products of different situations rather than characteristics of different individuals” (Zhao et al., 2008, p. 1831).10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 22
  23. 23. Identity using Avatars “For the most part, avatars in blogging were created to accurately reflect their owners‟ physical appearance, lifestyle and preferences” (Vasalou&Joinson, 2009)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 23
  24. 24. “Avatar attributes drew on participants‟ self- image, and thus avatars were perceived by their owners as highly similar to themselves.” (Vasalou and Joinson, 2009, p. 510) Accentuations and “hoped-for selves”10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 24
  25. 25. Me and My Avatar“ Mostavatar. . . in having equal access to with their participants reported high similarity everyday artifacts and fantasy options, participants were inclined to draw on existing self-views rather than grasping the opportunity to explore other personas. ” (Vasalou and Joinson, p. 517)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 25
  26. 26. Actual Self and the True Self• The actual self is the one most of us must present to the world to “fit in,” to function smoothly in the physical world.True self attributes were actually significantly less positive than those of the actual self (Bargh et al., 2002),” as cited in McKenna, 2007, p. 208). 10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 26
  27. 27. Who is the true self? The true self is identity aspects that an individual currently possesses, yet is generally unable to readily express to others in most situations, despite wishing to do so.10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 27
  28. 28. Studies demonstrate that peopleMake snap judgments when meeting people However, in person. • “Participant‟s true self was more accessible following an Internet interaction than following a face-to- face interaction” (McKenna, 2007,p. 213)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 28
  29. 29. “Given that the true self becomesmore activated than the actual self after just five minutes of online interaction suggests that qualities of Internet communication very quickly bring out a person‟s true self” (McKenna, 2007). 10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 29
  30. 30. People tend to like one another more if they first become acquainted through the Internet than if they first meet in person” where “on the Internet” refers to a text- based, non photo, non-visual interaction. McKenna, 2007; Laboratory studies (Bargh et al., 2002; McKenna et al., 2002)10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 30
  31. 31. Conclusions? Identity: Real and Virtual• People‟s virtual identity does not appear to stray far from their physical world identity.• Ethics: How is honesty expressed in online identity?• In society: how is identity related to citizenship?10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 31
  32. 32. Citizenship to Digital CitizenshipTypes of Citizens• Dutiful• Engaged• Enlightened
  33. 33. Evolving Citizens• Broad, cross-national generational shift in postindustrial democracies from a DUTIFUL CITIZEN model to a ENGAGED (ACTUALIZING) CITIZEN model W. Lance Bennett"Changing Citizenship in the Digital Age" (2008)University of Washington, Seattle, Center for Communication and Civic Engagement
  34. 34. The Enlightened Citizen
  35. 35. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly on December 10, 1948, states:“No one shall be subjected toarbitrary interference with hisprivacy, family, home orcorrespondence, nor to attacksupon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to theprotection of the law againstsuch interference or attacks”(United Nations, n. d.). EM-630 Cyberethics 35
  36. 36. Privacy Anyone?10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 36
  37. 37. • "So do you have curtains?" or "Can I see your credit-card bills for the last year?"• "I dont need to justify my position. You need to justify yours. Come back with a warrant."• I dont have anything to hide. But I dont have anything I feel like showing you, either.• If you have nothing to hide, then you dont have a life.• Show me yours and Ill show you mine. Its not about having anything to hide, its about things not being anyone elses business.• Joe Stalin would [have] loved it. Why should anyone have to say more?10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 37
  38. 38. Lesson Plans for CyberethicsLesson # 1 - Internet Laws Grade 5Lesson # 2 - Online Behaviors and Netiquette Grade 4Lesson # 3 - Privacy and Respect Grade 4Lesson # 4 - Plagiarism, Copyright, & Grade 8 (Writing)Intellectual Property Grades 10-11 (Chemistry)Lesson # 5 - Cyberbullying and Cyberethics Grades 9-12 (Algebra & Statistics) Grades 11-12 (English) Grades 7-8Lesson # 6 - What is Citizenship? Grades 9-12Lesson # 7 - How To Be A Good Citizen Grades 1-2 10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 38
  39. 39. Lesson Plans• Lesson #2 - Online Behaviors and NetiquetteGrade 2- Extend to E-mail• Introduce the postal mail delivery to your class• Letter writing developmentally appropriate• Students develop street name for classroom; assign a number for each student• Rotate postmaster weekly• Respect each other‟s mailbox• Remind students of writing friendly letters• Integrate into current curriculum
  40. 40. Lesson Plan IdeasLesson # 5 - Cyberbullying and CyberethicsGrades 11-12 - English and Shakespeares OthelloEssential Question: How does a play written 400 years ago relate to modern phenomena, including cyberethics and cyberbullying?Students will Understand: Unsavory emotions and unethical behaviors propel Othello‟s narrative action. Humans still experience these emotions and engage in these behaviors; technology increases their speed, power and danger.
  41. 41. Lesson Plan IdeasLesson # 5 - Cyberbullying and CyberethicsGrades 11-12 - English and Shakespeares Othello (cont.)Students will be able to: • Explain how Iago‟s unethical behavior parallels unethical behavior that is frequently seen in cyberspace today. • Utilize strategies to ensure that their behavior in cyberspace is ethical.
  42. 42. Where to go from here?• How do variables such as the psychology of the Internet, online privacy, identity, safety, and digital citizenship affect your school experience?10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 42
  43. 43. Thank You!• Please contact me if you are interested in participating in a grant and/or other research in cyberethics. David Whittier School of Education Boston University10/24/12 Cyberethics at MassCUE 2012 43