Chapter Thirteen: Moral Realism and the Challenge of Skepticism Moral Realism This theory claims that moral facts exist an...
Terms <ul><li>Nonnaturalism:   a theory held by  nonnaturalistic moral realists  who ground moral values in nonnatural fac...
Mackie’s Moral Skepticism <ul><li>Argues “there are no objective values”, there are no objective moral truths </li></ul><u...
Arguments from Relativity, Queerness, and Projection <ul><li>Mackie offers three arguments for his skeptical position: </l...
Arguments from Relativity, Queerness, and Projection <ul><li>3.  Argument from projection : aims to show that belief in ob...
Harman’s Moral Nihilism <ul><li>Defends an extreme Moral Nihilism, morality is simply an illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Disana...
Criticism: Scientific and Moral Observation are Analogous <ul><li>There is no strong disanalogy between scientific and mor...
A Defense of Moral Realism <ul><li>Moral Facts about Happiness and Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Universal and Supervenient ...
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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter Thirteen: Moral Realism and the Challenge of Skepticism Moral Realism This theory claims that moral facts exist and are part of the fabric of the universe: they exist independently of our thoughts about them
  2. 2. Terms <ul><li>Nonnaturalism: a theory held by nonnaturalistic moral realists who ground moral values in nonnatural facts about the world </li></ul><ul><li>Moral skepticism: a denial that moral values are objectively factual </li></ul><ul><li>Moral nihilism: holds that there are no moral facts, no moral truths, and no moral knowledge. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mackie’s Moral Skepticism <ul><li>Argues “there are no objective values”, there are no objective moral truths </li></ul><ul><li>His view is not about the meaning of moral statements but about objective facts , about whether there are any factually right or good actions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Arguments from Relativity, Queerness, and Projection <ul><li>Mackie offers three arguments for his skeptical position: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Argument from relativity : there is no universal moral code to which all people adhere to </li></ul><ul><li>2. Argument from queerness : the implausiblity of supposing that such things as values have an independent existence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Arguments from Relativity, Queerness, and Projection <ul><li>3. Argument from projection : aims to show that belief in objective value is the result of psychological tendencies to project subjective beliefs to the outside world </li></ul>
  6. 6. Harman’s Moral Nihilism <ul><li>Defends an extreme Moral Nihilism, morality is simply an illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Disanalogy thesis : moral principles cannot be tested by observation in the same way that scientific theories can. </li></ul><ul><li>We choose our moral values not because of the way the world is, but because of the way we were brought up into this world. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Criticism: Scientific and Moral Observation are Analogous <ul><li>There is no strong disanalogy between scientific and moral observation </li></ul><ul><li>May not be able to be tested in the same way as empirical theories but they can be tested </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Defense of Moral Realism <ul><li>Moral Facts about Happiness and Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Universal and Supervenient Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Noncognitivism and Moral Realism </li></ul>

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