HOW Design Conference 2010 Process Imporvement

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HOW Design Conference 2010:Design Process Improvement Workshop

If you are interested in refining your design process, aligning your staff, and fixing your most frustrating problems, send me an email at dave@the-strategic-designer.com.

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  • Here is what he did – he began an process improvement initiaitiveNo longer a fly by the seat of their pants group. They have discipline.
  • On their own have each participant write down 10 project frustrationsHave them then share thee with their teamEach table will come up with a top ten listHave two tables read their listsAsk if other tables have other frustrations
  • How many people have ever been a client on a design project? What was that like?
  • At the heart of process improvement is LEANLEAN processes LEAN is based on some basic ideasDefect free On timeCreated without wasted effort or resourcesProduced in an work place that is professionally, physicaly and emotionally safeLet’s build some airplanes.
  • TaiichiOhnoToyota Production SystemObserving the Gemba – the place value is createdLike MBWAStandardize an operationMeasure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)Gauge measurements against requirementsInnovate to meet requirements and increase productivityStandardize the new, improved operationsContinue cycle ad infinitumTeamworkPersonal disciplineImproved moraleQuality circlesSuggestions for improvement
  • TaiichiOhno – the father of LEAN (Toyota Production System)Observing the Gemba – the place value is createdStandardize an operationMeasure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory)Gauge measurements against requirementsInnovate to meet requirements and increase productivityStandardize the new, improved operationsContinue cycle ad infinitum
  • Muda (無駄)[1] is a traditional Japanese term for an activity that is wasteful and doesn't add valueA process adds value by producing goods or providing a service that a customer will pay for.Muda for designersAsk: Who can think of activities that waste time in the design process?Overproduction – having more designers work on a project than necessaryAdding design features that the client did not ask forTaking more time than necessaryTransportation and motion – Handing off the project too many times.Defects – Rework and rescheduling: Extensive revisions, correcting text in layout, late revisionsWaiting – long approval processes, clients gone AWOL
  • A lean process might look something like this.
  • In the last exercise we simulated a manufacturing processDesign process is much more difficult, because everything is custom In the 2nd half , as we review our process, here are 5 things we should be thinking about.
  • Design the process around value adding activities Understand what customers want – where do you create value Study the as is flowchart and identify these areas Ask ‘ What is the most efficient and effective way to get the work done.Single point of contact transferring customers is bad/confusing Customers don’t know who to go to with questions Staff don’t know where to go for informationReduce rework and waiting Use cycle time analysis that have the greatest amount of reworkReduce setup times What activities do you do prior to performing a task? Looking for file, design briefs, client informationUse concurrent processes Identify what steps can be done independentlyReduce checks and rework Trust your staff Lack of trust creates excessive checking Multiple reviews encourages pour quality
  • Designers need to be in on initial meetings with clients.Create Wiki’s or other ways of sharing informationMake sure information is complete and correct Unedited copy, FPO images Make sure designers are in on the initial meetings so they get the best information directly from the sourceCapture information once- then share it widely Redundant data entry Re keying Coordinated data bases Design briefs, customer info, billing info, project infoShare all relevant information Respect everyone’s needs Hoarding information leads to mistakes and rework
  • Involve as few people as possible The “telephone game” The relay race Have people stay with the project as long as possible to eliminate the need for handoffs Cross train workers in all aspects of the process so they can participate in the project at different phasesEnsure 100% quality upfront Quality issues at the front end have exponentially negative effects downstream Fixing problems late in the process is costlyTest the process to see where it breaks Role-play scenarios PracticeInstall metrics to correct problems if you cant measure it- you cant control it If you cant control it- you cant improve itStandardize processes Allow you to control variations in outputs Variation makes it difficult to improve process
  • Co-locate the team Complex problems require people to review information in real time If a problem occurs on a regular basis – consider co-locating team members to improve communicationUse multi-skilled teams eliminates waiting time between steps Multi-skilled employees create flexibility and can help break bottlenecks
  • Incubation- Graham Wallis
  • They will sabotage or ignore anything that is forced upon them
  • Have a couple of people read their kick-off speeches.
  • Option: you could have each team address one phase of the entire process. IF you have enough people.
  • Frustration is a great place to start.Quickly identify areas in the design process that need attention.Gives people a chance to vent in a constructive manner
  • Did you ever wonder how much time you spend on actual design work?Do you track hours?Speed to market is important for clients.
  • Did you ever wonder how much time you spend on actual design work?Do you track hours?
  • Did you ever wonder how much time you spend on actual design work?Do you track hours?Use this framework to organize your time and effort
  • This is a great way to build relationships with your clients.
  • Testing the process is importantThe least risky option is to test the process through role-playing or practice
  • HOW Design Conference 2010 Process Imporvement

    1. 1. Design process improvement<br />HOW Design Conference, June 2010, Denver, CO<br />Dave Holston<br />Design Management Consulting<br />The Strategic Designer<br />www.the-strategic-designer.com<br />dave@the-strategic-designer.com<br />
    2. 2. About me<br />Dave Holston<br />Director of Strategic Design Management at The University of Texas at Austin<br />Owner/Design Management Consultant at The Strategic Designer<br />Creative Director for Wavefly<br />Creative Director Blue Byte Software<br />Senior Art Director at Signature Communications<br />Design Lead at General Electric, Martin Marietta and Lockheed Martin Government Services<br />
    3. 3. Who are you?<br />
    4. 4. Agenda<br />What you’ll learn<br />Discover the six steps to process improvement<br />Develop a more effective and efficient process<br />Increase customer satisfaction<br />Align your staffs understanding of your goals and their roles<br />Create a framework for continuous process improvement<br />
    5. 5. Agenda<br />Process improvement overview<br />The importance of design process <br />Exercise: Collaboration is key <br />Exercise: Common designer and client frustrations lists <br />Exercise: Process improvement - Airplanes <br />Exercise: Communication is key <br />10 minute break<br />Refining your process<br />Exercise: Writing a persuasive kick off speech <br />Exercise: Create the “as is” flow chart <br />Exercise: Four lenses <br />Exercise: Create the customer report card <br />Exercise: Write the “magic wand” process <br />Exercise: Create the refined process <br />
    6. 6. Getting into teams<br />Teams<br />Elect a leader – facilitate, keep on track, present ideas<br />Elect a scribe – document<br />Elect a Kaizen master <br />
    7. 7. Why process is important<br />Growing design firms need structure<br />Most design firms start from one or two people<br />As they grow there is a need to make implicit process explicit<br />Design organizations are about people working collaboratively<br />Process is a key tool for making collaboration successful<br />
    8. 8. Why process is important<br />Big firms or departments need structure<br />Refine their in-house processes<br />No formalized process<br />making it up as they went along<br />Reinventing the wheel<br />“Building the plane while it was in the air”<br />
    9. 9. Why process is important<br />Design process improvement process<br />Interview players in the creative process<br />Constructed a workflow chart<br />Identified three tiers of of work<br />Created individual workflow diagrams for each tier<br />Workflow, roles and responsibilities and detailed description of the work<br />Trained the design team <br />
    10. 10. Why process is important<br />Why<br />Standard operating procedures<br />Training tool for staff<br />Tool for clients<br />Allows the client to see the repercussion of their actions<br />A small change can add up to several hours<br />The change may take a minute, but the process provides for quality protections for the client<br />
    11. 11. Why process is important<br />“Process is more important than outcome. When the outcome drives the<br />process we will only ever go to where we've already been. If process<br />drives outcome we may not know where we’re going, but we will know we<br />want to be there.” - Bruce Mau<br />
    12. 12. The value of process<br />TRUST<br />
    13. 13. The value of process<br />DESIGN IS A DISCIPLINE, <br />NOT AN ARTISTIC INDULGENCE<br />
    14. 14. The value of process<br />Clients want assurance<br />“Gut instinct scares the crap out of (business) people, because you<br />might be wrong. If you’ve taught all your life that process equals<br />success, then you will naturally want to know that the people you are<br />engaging with have a process, that you can understand so you can<br />make a rational judgment.”<br />Dave Mason, Principal, SamataMason<br />
    15. 15. The value of process<br />Design thinking is process driven<br />“design skills and business skills are converging…It's time to<br />embrace a new value proposition based on creating -- indeed, often<br />co-creating -- new products and services with customers that fill their<br />needs, make them happy, and make companies and shareholders<br />rich.” Martin goes on to say that the design skills of “understanding,<br />empathy, problem solving” are what business need today.”<br />Roger Martin, dean of the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto<br />
    16. 16. The value of process<br />A tool for collaboration<br />Transparency<br />Gets everyone on the same page<br />Inclusiveness<br />Alignment<br />Working in cross-functional teams<br />Death of the design egotist<br />
    17. 17. The value of process<br />On a side note:<br />HOWARD ROARK MUST DIE<br />
    18. 18. The value of process - collaboration<br />The Drawing Game: <br />Collaboration rules<br />Choose a partner<br />Work silently<br />Take turns drawing parts of a face, one feature at a time<br />When you hesitate, stop drawing <br />Now write the first letter of this characters name<br />Keep going till someone hesitates<br />
    19. 19. The value of process – client centric<br />Audience perspective<br />Working with audiences to gain insight<br />Testing concepts with audiences<br />Understanding audience values<br />Hallmark<br />What resonated with audiences<br />Increase presence within retail environments<br />Have audiences draw the logo to see what they recalled<br />Have audiences pick the color<br />“incorporate the customers voice”<br />
    20. 20. The value of process - speed<br />Speed<br />Provides a framework for moving forward<br />Mitigates confusion<br />Aligns stakeholders at the beginning of the process<br />Lucent Technologies<br />IPO date approaching<br />12 weeks to re-brand the company<br />Naming and identity<br />Lucent’s IPO ended up being the largest in US History, raising roughly $2.9 billion.<br />Landor stuck to their process<br />
    21. 21. The value of process - risk <br />Risk<br />Process manages risk<br />Risk management tools<br />Sign offs<br />Design briefs<br />Change orders<br />Kraft Foods<br />13 people responsible for 220 brands<br />175 design jobs simultaneously<br />Targeted and well crafted<br />
    22. 22. The value of process – work issues<br />When something goes wrong at work,<br /> what is our first reaction?<br />
    23. 23. The value of process – work issues<br />
    24. 24. EXERCISE: Common designer frustrations<br />List your top ten project frustrations <br />
    25. 25. EXERCISE: Common client frustrations<br />From a client perspective list your project frustrations<br />
    26. 26. The design process<br />Sign off<br />Sign off<br />Concept <br />Development<br />Design<br />Development<br />Project<br />Initiation<br />Design<br />Research<br />Measuring ROI<br />Brainstorming<br />Brain sketching<br />Concept screening<br />Visualization<br />Prototyping<br />Design metrics<br />Situational analysis<br />Business analysis<br />Interviews<br />Focus groups<br />Ethnography<br />Setting the expectation<br />The value of design<br />Establishing the relationship<br />Project requirements<br />
    27. 27. Design Process: Bielenberg<br />John Bielenberg<br />THINK WRONG<br />
    28. 28. Design Process: Bielenberg<br />Heuristics are pathways in the brain<br />Trying to disrupt the orthodoxies <br />What people pay attention to is what is different <br />What is good is typically based on what they’ve seen previously<br />THINK WRONG<br />THINK WRONG<br />THINK WRONG<br />THINK WRONG<br />Find the<br />big idea<br />Make things <br />then<br />get out<br />Build a <br />brief<br />Construct a <br />debris field<br />Select and do it<br />Create a vivid picture<br />of the problem to be <br />solved and the results to be achieved<br />Show the environment<br />where the solution will live<br />Generate disruptive<br />Content and design ideas<br />Quickly bring ideas to life<br />Seek outside influences<br />
    29. 29. Design Process: Beruit<br />Michael Beruit<br />MAGIC<br />
    30. 30. Design Process: Beruit<br />Intuition and iteration<br />Artful making: cheap and rapid iteration rather than on intensive up-front planning<br />Elevating collaboration and iteration as key parts of the design process. <br />An “emergent” approach<br />Develop other<br />solutions<br />Magic<br />Listen<br />Justify solution<br />
    31. 31. Design Process: GSD&M<br />GSD&M<br />DYNAMICCOLLABORATION<br />
    32. 32. Design Process: GSD&M<br />The process is collaborative, engaging as many “smart people” as possible. <br />The first step is to admit that you don’t have the corner on “smarts.” <br />Ideation lab online collaboration tool<br />Anonymous<br />Top ten ideas<br />Admit you <br />don’t have all the answers<br />Online<br />discussion<br />Design<br />Development<br />Look for<br />collaborators<br />
    33. 33. Exercise: Refining your process<br />
    34. 34. Exercise: Refining your process<br />Scenario<br />Your team is one of several airplane production lines that are in direct competition<br />with each other in the production of paper airplanes. You will begin with the raw<br />materials and produce airplanes as quickly as you can.<br />Game flow<br />The game will consist of three rounds. Each round will have three phases:<br />Phase 1: You will produce airplanes<br />Phase 2: Kaizen master will provide you feedback<br />Phase 3: Make changes in the production process to increase efficiency and quality for the next round<br />
    35. 35. Exercise: Refining your process - Kaizen<br />The Kaizen Master<br />Kai (change), zen (become good)<br />Elimination of waste and inefficiency <br />Kaizen five elements<br />Teamwork<br />Personal discipline<br />Improved morale<br />Quality circles<br />Suggestions for improvement<br />Kaizen five framework<br />Seiri – tidiness<br />Seiton – orderliness<br />Seiso – cleanliness<br />Seiketsu – standardized clean up<br />Shitsuke - discipline<br />
    36. 36. Exercise: Refining your process - Kaizen<br />“Stand in a circle” method<br />The Kaizen master will stand in a circle<br />The rest of the team will build airplanes<br />Goals<br />Eliminate waste <br />Identify “Non value” activities<br />On a piece of paper find 10 things to improve each phase<br />Choose one of the improvements and address it immediately <br />
    37. 37. Exercise: Refining your process - Kaizen<br />無駄<br />(muda)<br />Seven types of waste<br />Overproduction – Use more resources than you need to deliver to your customer.<br />Unnecessary transportation – Moving the product creates risk<br />Inventory – Materials that are not producing income<br />Motion – Too many motions to create the product<br />Defects – Defects equal extra costs in rework and rescheduling<br />Over-processing – Creating more than what the customer wants<br />Waiting – Whenever projects are waiting to be worked on <br />
    38. 38. Exercise: Refining your process<br />
    39. 39. Exercise: Refining your process<br />Round 1<br />In four minutes<br />have four team members build…<br />8 Blue planes with 1 dot and 1 paper clip<br />8 Yellow planes with 2 dots and 3 paper clips<br />8 Orange planes with 3 dots and 2 paper clips<br />
    40. 40. Exercise: Refining your process - Lean<br />Round 2<br />In four minutes<br />have four team members build…<br />8 Blue planes with 1 dot and 1 paper clip<br />8 Yellow planes with 2 dots and 3 paper clips<br />8 Orange planes with 3 dots and 2 paper clips<br />
    41. 41. Exercise: Refining your process - Lean<br />Round 3<br />In three minutes<br />have four team members build…<br />8 Blue planes with 1 dot and 1 paper clip<br />8 Yellow planes with 2 dots and 3 paper clips<br />8 Orange planes with 3 dots and 2 paper clips<br />
    42. 42. 5 principals of process redesign<br />Mange work structure<br />Information flow<br />Design guides<br />Organizing people<br />General guidance<br />
    43. 43. 1. Manage work structure<br />Design the process around value adding activities<br />Single point of contact<br />Reduce rework and waiting<br />Reduce setup times<br />Use concurrent design processes whenever possible<br />Reduce checks and reviews<br />Build quality in at the beginning<br />Don’t let anything disrupt the value stream<br />
    44. 44. 2. Information flow<br />Bring downstream information needs upstream<br />Capture project data once, and share it widely<br />Share all relevant information<br />
    45. 45. 3. Design guides<br />Involve as few people as possible in the process<br />Ensure 100 quality at the beginning of the process<br />Test the process to see where it will break<br />Install metrics and feedback to correct problems<br />Standardize process<br />
    46. 46. 4. Organizing people<br />Co-locate your team<br />Use multifunctional teams<br />Use multi-skilled teams<br />
    47. 47. Design process improvement workshop<br />10 min break<br />(Incubation time)<br />
    48. 48. The Process Improvement Process<br />Create the<br />“As is” chart<br />Four Lenses<br />Analysis<br />Customer <br />Report card<br />Build the<br />team<br />New process<br />chart<br />
    49. 49. Step 1: Create the process improvement team<br />Build the team<br />Compliance vs. Commitment<br />Design staff knows the job the best and can…<br />Address frustration<br />Bottlenecks<br />Bureaucracy <br />Simplify processes<br />Increase teamwork<br />Make a list of who you would have on your design process redesign team <br />
    50. 50. Step 1: Create the process improvement team<br />Design staff and clients<br />involved in the change<br />will help support it later on<br />(this is your mantra)<br />
    51. 51. EXERCISE: Writing a persuasive kick-off speech<br />Getting people onboard is critical<br />Change is hard for some teams. <br />Honor the past<br />Highlight past successes<br />Highlight people’s contributions<br />Highlight the attitudes that help<br />Show appreciation for everyone’s hard work<br />
    52. 52. EXERCISE: Writing a persuasive kick-off speech<br />Talk about the present<br />The current situation<br />Problems and issues<br />Who’s involved<br />Why the problem occurred<br />What will happen if nothing is done<br />
    53. 53. EXERCISE: Writing a persuasive kick-off speech<br />Talk about the future<br />The target goal – the reason for change<br />What past traits will help with the future<br />What new traits are needed<br />Improvement is <br />Quality<br />Service <br />Cost<br />Time<br />Features<br />
    54. 54. EXERCISE: Writing a persuasive kick-off speech<br />Talk about what staff can expect<br />Job description<br />Work location<br />Pay levels<br />Workload<br />Potential job loss<br />Let people know that everyone will have a part to play<br />Wrap up<br />Acknowledge that mistakes will be made – learning experiences<br />Get staff buy-in<br />Promise to keep staff informed<br />
    55. 55. EXERCISE: Create a macro level flow chart<br />The big picture<br />Create a macro level flow chart of the main process<br />Define what excellence looks like at each step<br />What organizations are doing a good job at each step?<br />Is there a “gap” between current performance and excellence?<br />How do you close the “gap.”<br />Sign off<br />Sign off<br />Concept <br />Development<br />Design<br />Development<br />Project<br />Initiation<br />Design<br />Research<br />Measuring ROI<br />
    56. 56. Step 2: Create the “best practice” process chart<br />How<br />Choose a project: Web design, brochure design, brand identity design<br />List the project staff along the left side of the page (Client, art director, designer, Web programmer…)<br />Write the macro level phases at the top of the page<br />Start with the first phase – discuss what should happen first, second third…)<br />Repeat for the remaining phases<br />
    57. 57. Step 2: Create the “best practice” process chart<br />
    58. 58. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Frustration<br />Why frustration<br />People can clearly see the process<br />People can communicate about their concerns<br />Problem areas become visible<br />People are able to offer ideas for improvement<br />People gain buy-in to the process<br />
    59. 59. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Frustration<br />How<br />For each process step ask “ is there anything frustrating about this step?”<br />Write the number of the step, and problem on the flip chart<br />Have team members write ways to eliminate the problem.<br />
    60. 60. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Frustration<br />Sorting the ideas<br />High<br />Value to the <br />customer and <br />impact<br />Low<br />Cheap and easy Expensive and difficult<br />
    61. 61. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Time<br />Why<br />Time is a critical dimension of customer satisfaction<br />Getting clients their designs quickly is a value adding activity<br />Inspection, moving, setup, rework and waiting create added costs<br />
    62. 62. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Time<br />How<br />For each step consider what percentage your time is spent<br />Processing time - actual work<br />Setup time – work done prior to the actual work (setting up equipment, locating files, collecting data)<br />Wait time – answering calls, email, meetings<br />Inspection time – client reviews, internal reviews<br />Rework time – time spent correcting quality issues<br />
    63. 63. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Time<br />Process cycle time sheet<br />
    64. 64. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Quality<br />Why<br />Quality is ranked as most important by customers<br />Identify quality issues and rank them, and find their root cause<br />Try to produce quality without review an inspection<br />How<br />1. Describe the problem in detail ( errors, rework, excessive client reviews).<br />2. What is the effect on customers, staff and others?<br />3. What do you do to fix the problem?<br />4. How often does the problem occur – daily, weekly, monthly?<br />
    65. 65. Step 3: Review through the four lenses - Cost<br />Why<br />Lets you calculate the return on your redesign investment<br />Lets you see what steps in the process consume the most money?<br />Allows for activity-based costing – see how much time and dollars<br />
    66. 66. Step 4: Create the customer report card<br /> Customer report card<br />Ask customers what they need from the process<br />Pick a group of customers to give feedback on customer satisfaction<br />Ask customer to rank their wants <br />Ask them to grade how well the process performs each of their criteria ( A,B,C,D,…)<br /> Ask the customer what an A grade looks like for each item.<br />
    67. 67. Step 4: Create the customer report card<br />
    68. 68. Step 5: Write the “magic wand” story<br />Write a story about the new process.<br />Make believe you have a magic wand and can do anything.<br />Don’t worry about current realities.<br />Read the story aloud.<br />Once the story is read, team members can “bring it back to reality” to make it doable.<br />Ask “What aspects of this story can be altered so that it can be done?”<br />
    69. 69. Step 6: Create the new process chart<br />Make changes based on feedback<br />Refine into one design<br />Test the design through role-playing, simulation or practice<br />Review the new process with management<br />Review, questions, suggestions and implementation options<br />Share the final design with staff<br />Review, questions, suggestions and implementation options<br />Share the final design with clients<br />Review, questions, suggestions and implementation options<br />
    70. 70. Step 6: Create the new process chart<br />Role-playing<br />Each team member assumes the role of client, designer, Art Director, programmer.<br />Send fake projects through the system to see where it will break<br />Practice<br />Use real project inputs<br />Use real project participants<br />
    71. 71. Design process improvement<br />HOW Design Conference, June 2010, Denver, CO<br />Dave Holston<br />Design Management Consulting<br />The Strategic Designer<br />www.the-strategic-designer.com<br />dave@the-strategic-designer.com<br />

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