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Walkability of local communities        Using geographic information systems to objectively        assess relevant environ...
Let’s hope so                                                            Or could this is the                             ...
Research on the environmental-    behavioral relationship   Past research was not based on objective data    ◦ Creates a ...
Useful studies   Giles-Corti & Donovan    ◦ spatial access to built & natural rec. facilities + observer      ratings = m...
Identify & Document Differences inEnvironmental Attributes   Density   Land Use Mix   Street Connectivity   Access to ...
Why walking?   Main focus of    environmental and    policy initiatives in    public health
Walk-ability?   How conducive the    built environment    and land use is for    people to walk    ◦   For leisure    ◦  ...
Saelens Literature Review findings         Sorry, that’s LESS than 800 Meters   Proximity                      Connectiv...
GIS IN THE AUSTRALIAN    CONTEXT: ADELAIDE    STATISTICAL DIVISON    Source:    http://www.bugbog.com/images/maps/australi...
SPATIAL DATA SETS   Tax valuation   Cadastral (parcel) data   Street centerline data   Land use   Zoning data   Shop...
Measurements in the                          Creating the indexwalkability index   Dwelling density         Each measure...
Communities stratified in 4quadrants          Walkable   Socioeconomic StatusLow          X               OHigh         O ...
Field validation – how did the indexperform?   Research team several days in    field    ◦ Index validated    ◦ Methodolo...
The Future   Index needs to be            Include more factors:    more comprehensive            ◦ Presence/access to  ...
I live downThe End                       the street                               from the                                ...
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Articles Summary - Walkability of Local Communities - Using GIS to Objectively Assess Relevant Environmental Attributes

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Articles Summary - Walkability of Local Communities - Using GIS to Objectively Assess Relevant Environmental Attributes

  1. 1. Walkability of local communities Using geographic information systems to objectively assess relevant environmental attributes Leslie, E., Coffee, N., Frank, L., Owen, N., Baumann, A., Hugo, G. Elsevier Publishing Ltd. – Health & Place Vol. 13 Issue 1 2007TECHNION-Israel Institute of Technology ‫הטכניון - מכון טכנולוגי לישראל‬Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning 207020 - ‫שיטות תכנון מתקדמות‬ ‫הפקולטה לארכיטקטורה ובינוי ערים‬Urban and Regional Planning ‫ד"ר גקלין גובראן אבו דאוד‬ 1 ‫תכנון ערים ואזורים‬
  2. 2. Let’s hope so Or could this is the Premature death kind ofto sedentary linked neighborhood that he lives in? lifestyle Physical inactivity a How can physical major health risk activity be promoted? •Overweight Environmental and •Obesity Policy Interventions •Heart disease •Various cancers But does the physical environment influence physicalSources photos 1 & 2:http://www.gossipjackal.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/premature-death- activity?linked-sedentary-lifestyle.jpghttp://www.houselogic.com/articles/boost-your-neighborhoods-walkability/ 2
  3. 3. Research on the environmental- behavioral relationship Past research was not based on objective data ◦ Creates a need for objective data-based research Combination of GIS with social and spatial epidemiology creates great potential for analysis
  4. 4. Useful studies Giles-Corti & Donovan ◦ spatial access to built & natural rec. facilities + observer ratings = more access = more active Troped & Colleagues ◦ Distance of bikeways had neg. association with use Bauman & Humpel ◦ Geographic location associated w/increase phys. Activity Krizek ◦ Influence of certain attributes of urban form on phys activity ◦ Expose to urban environments with diff. attributes = individuals changed travel behavior
  5. 5. Identify & Document Differences inEnvironmental Attributes Density Land Use Mix Street Connectivity Access to Services
  6. 6. Why walking? Main focus of environmental and policy initiatives in public health
  7. 7. Walk-ability? How conducive the built environment and land use is for people to walk ◦ For leisure ◦ For exercise ◦ For recreation ◦ To access services ◦ To get to workPLACE Study
  8. 8. Saelens Literature Review findings Sorry, that’s LESS than 800 Meters Proximity  Connectivity ◦ Compactness of land use ◦ Street network design ◦ Land use mix  Directness of pathways between destinations ◦ Compact & intermixed urban environment = determine distances between destinations ◦ To compete with other  Lack of relevant data travel modes need ◦ Presence of Sidewalks <800 meters distance between destinations
  9. 9. GIS IN THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT: ADELAIDE STATISTICAL DIVISON Source: http://www.bugbog.com/images/maps/australia- map.jpg Only used to study accessibility to recreational facilities This study used existing approach from USA’s Neighborhood Quality of Life Study Need for smallest available spatial units: Census Collection DistrictsSource: http://www.socsci.flinders.edu.au/cas/sanra/occasional/figure10.gif
  10. 10. SPATIAL DATA SETS  Tax valuation  Cadastral (parcel) data  Street centerline data  Land use  Zoning data  Shopping center location data  Census dataSource: Leslie, E., et al. Walkability of local communities
  11. 11. Measurements in the Creating the indexwalkability index Dwelling density  Each measure gets a leveled Connectivity score 1-10 Land use attributes  Sum of each CCD is between 4-40 Net retail area  Classify these scores into quartiles 1-4 ◦ 1 = lowest ◦ 4 = highest  Map out these scores in the fieldAdd in SES analysis based on census level data and Average age in each CCD Total 32 Communities – 156 CCDs
  12. 12. Communities stratified in 4quadrants Walkable Socioeconomic StatusLow X OHigh O O
  13. 13. Field validation – how did the indexperform? Research team several days in field ◦ Index validated ◦ Methodology returned face-valid results Resident surveys showed similar perceptions
  14. 14. The Future Index needs to be  Include more factors: more comprehensive ◦ Presence/access to GIS has largely parks untapped capacity in ◦ Presence/condition and continuity of the physical activity & footpaths environmental ◦ Urban design aspects relationship ◦ Aesthetics ◦ Safety  Use characteristics at individual residence level
  15. 15. I live downThe End the street from the gym! There’s many applications of GIS methods to promote increased physical activity Use of the index in other countries ◦ Possibly problematic do to the use of detailed land use & census data

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