Motivational change


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Motivational change

  1. 1. Motivational Change An Individualized Approach to Change in Organizations D. Berglund 2010
  2. 2. Theoretical Foundations <ul><ul><li>This model of organizational change is based on the psychological principles of Motivational Interviewing along with traditional business principles which provide practical usability and operational applications. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is motivation? <ul><ul><li>A state of desire to change one's situation or movement towards a specific goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This state is may be modified by both internal decision-making and external pressures </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Internal Factors <ul><ul><li>Internal Motivation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictated by one's desire to make change in current situation or outcomes because of factors within the individual: joy, self-empowerment, significance of change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;If I shift to a customer-centric approach, I might enjoy seeing customers satisfied with our interactions&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. External Factors <ul><ul><li>External Motivation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictated by one's desire to avoid punishment and gain rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;If I shift to a customer-centric approach, I might increase my commissions&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Proximate Factors <ul><ul><li>Proximate definition: closest in degree as cause of an event; closest in space and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proximate cause is what is immediately observed as causing a change in behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the 80/20 proximate factors of change will simplify change management and increase likelihood of success. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What are organizations? <ul><ul><li>A group of persons organized for a particular purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encompasses both small/large business as well as political organizations; government agencies; groups with delineated structure and singular purpose/mission </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Importance of Approach <ul><ul><li>On an individual level, the decision to change is completely up to individual  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This stance increases individual responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Given choice to change, person must weigh consequences and benefits of decision </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Importance of Approach <ul><ul><li>People are given clear choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choices may be dictated by environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors/Management may require change to take place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism and Responsibility are Central to progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of majority of organization &quot;getting on board&quot; is central for change to take place </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Potential Uses <ul><ul><li>Organizational Change / Process Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change in company vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restructuring of organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New product market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process improvement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Precursor of Change <ul><ul><li>Recognizing problem exists in organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem may be: decreased revenue, culture change, vision change, product line shift, or any change that affects an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This stage is critical to change management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More specific the change is, and who is affected, the easier it is to develop change management plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Machiavelli on Change <ul><ul><li>In Machiavelli's political treatise &quot;The Prince&quot; he provides numerous references to the difficulty involved in advocating change in an organization (or political system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also identifies that any progress requires change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, any desire to increase market capitalization, improve processes or shift strategies requires change. And for that change to be successful, planning and change management must occur. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Machiavelli on Change <ul><ul><li>Machiavelli identifies the individual as occupying the central role in determining whether the change intervention will be accepted or rejected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machiavellian factors of change: Power, leaders and teams, rewards and discipline, and roles, norms and values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each factor must be considered in developing client change process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Machiavelli &quot;It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things . For the reformer has enemies in all those who profit by the old order, and only lukewarm defenders in all those who would profit by the new order, this lukewarmness arising partly from fear of their adversaries, who have the laws in their favour; and partly from the incredulity of mankind, who do not truly believe in anything new until they have had actual experience of it. Niccolò Machiavelli  The Prince and The Discourses  The Modern Library, Random House, Inc., 1950, Page 21, Chapter VI
  15. 15. Organizational Change <ul><ul><li>This theory employs a stage-based cyclical orientation to change management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is expected that management, or those prescribing change, stand to guide the individuals and team members who will &quot;feel the change&quot; through the process </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organizational Change <ul><ul><li>Before the cycle begins it is critical for management to fully prepare for change process and recognize how individuals navigate the cycle as well as understand common roadblocks and precursors to change. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Environment of Change <ul><ul><li>Recognition of how the individual and organization are related to environment is critical  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is generally dictated from the organizational level, however all organizational change requires behavioral changes on the individual level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A primary or secondary goal of most change initiatives is to reposition or enhance (global) marketplace position. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Environment of Change Global Marketplace Target Market Organization Individual
  19. 19. Organizational Change <ul><ul><li>Typical Pre-planning Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem or Change in Vision/Needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of Situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down orientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Awareness/Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System-wide communication using multiple mediums and messages all with consistent vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begin Rollout    </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this point, the change will begin to occur for the clients. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Stages of Change <ul><ul><li>Precontemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Precontemplation <ul><ul><li>Client does not see need or reason to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually fits in one of four categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctant: lack of knowledge or inertia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rebelliousness: heavily invested in past behavior and, standing apart from the crowd to prove a point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resignation: lack of energy or investment, maybe fear. Possibly “victim” mentally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action needed to move: realize problems, increase doubt, note risks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Precontemplation <ul><ul><li>In any group or organization it is likely that there will be clients who fit in three categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those against change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those who need information before making change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>those eager to make changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Precontemplation <ul><ul><li>Even those individuals who are open or eager for change need to be taught the reasons behind the change to ensure they remain on board throughout change process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining what psychological factors are playing largest role in resistance is essential to bringing about desire behavior change </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Contemplation <ul><ul><li>Client is possibly open to new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased information is central to moving on to next stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Balance: costs vs. benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client will weigh consequences of not conforming to change as well as the benefits that change will provide </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Contemplation <ul><ul><li>Tipping Point  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May bring about black and white thinking patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremes of thinking inform the middle majority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting leaders in organization to support change is critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action needed to move; tip the balance, evoke reasons to change </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Preparation <ul><ul><li>Window of opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chance to develop plan for change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater investment increases likelihood of successful change program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased knowledge of potential setbacks or weaknesses in plan will be addressed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’ve got to do something about this!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action needed to move; develop comprehensive strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This strategy will be indicated by those endorsing change </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Preparation - Developing Plan <ul><ul><li>Just as management developed plan for overall change process, individuals should be guided as to how the change will affect them in their role as well as their future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vision should be clear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Action <ul><ul><li>Activity of changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribed change is taking place. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People &quot;feel&quot; the change at this point. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previous preparation should prepare for this critical moment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Action <ul><ul><li>Public commitment is evident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees outside of change process as well as the public see the changing environment for those involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth transition will increase confidence in company's present and future direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action needed to move: continue to develop strategies to fix setbacks during implementation and promote continued compliance with change, especially amongst leaders </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Ongoing evaluation of goals and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Change Process should be conducted at this point with recurring evaluation at appropriate intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action required: preventing regression to previous stages </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Maintenance <ul><ul><li>Growth and Development of organization continue to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future interests and cognitive changes  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Client role in organizational vision/future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does change affect individual's perception of role in organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining prescribed change with continued support </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Regression <ul><ul><li>At any time in client change process, regression to previous stages is possibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any slip back to &quot;old behavior&quot; requires immediate analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase awareness and promote those concepts that led to &quot;getting on board&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on positive - what was learned as result of regression? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past problems should inform future decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action needed: Must start change process again. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Lessons <ul><ul><li>Any progress requires change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For change process to be successful within an organization, those implementing change must foresee client resistance on individual level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change management must consider individual needs/responses to the change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must consider evolutionary process of change and that change is not a hope to achieve a static outcome, but rather a maintenance of prescribed behaviors. </li></ul></ul>