LANDFORMS &RIVERSCollision of African, Eurasian,and arabian plates hascreated a mixture ofmountains, plateaus, valleys,narrow gulfs, and seas.As the african and arabianplates move apart, the red seais getting widerthere are frequentearthquakes as a result of thistectonic activity
MESOPOTAMIATo the north of the arabianpeninsulaPart of the fertile crescent“Land between the rivers” -tigris & Euphrates
NATURALRESOURCESOil - PlentifulPersian Gulf reserves arethe largest in the worldfew other resources fordeveloping industry (iranhas some metallicresources)
NATURALRESOURCESWater - Not Plentiful (tigris& Euphrates are the mainsource)In the mountains, farmersdepend on rain
OTHER WAYS TO GETWATERdeep wells or an oasisfossil water (undergroundand non-renewable)desalinization - remove saltfrom seawater (Saudiarabia produces moredesalinized water than anyother country)
FIRST CIVILIZATIONSThe world’s first civilizationsdeveloped in the fertilecrescent.many animals and plantswere first domesticatedthere.3000 BC - Sumerians builtthe worlds first known citiesin mesopotamia
CONQUEST -PERSIANSAkkadians conquered thesumerians in 2350 BCPeople from all directionsinvaded and set up newempires550 bc - empire develops inpersia, where iran is todayPersians had one of thelargest, richest, and mostpowerful empires in the world.
RISE OF ISLAMAD 570-632: PROPHETMUHAMMADESTABLISHED ISLAMIslam is one of the world’smost widely practicedreligionsBy the time Muhammaddied, Islam had spread tomost of the arabianpeninsulaMore on islam later...
SAFAVIDSIn the early 1500s, rulerscalled Safavids came to powerin Iran.Historians consider their rule,which lasted more than 200years, to be a golden age ofpersian cultureliterature, architecture and artsflourished. persian carpets,ceramics and textiles becamerenowned.
OTTOMAN EMPIREIn the 1500s, OTTOMANSconquered Mesopotamiaand the east and west coastof the Arabian PeninsulaOttomans and Safavidsheld power until the 1800sand 1900s when the britishand russian empires tookover
CULTURE - ARABSPeople in the Persian Gulfand Interior Southwest Asiaare ARABS and ARABIC isthe dominant languageThe spread of Islaminfluenced the spread of theArabic language and theArabic world, so eventuallyall Arabic speakers becameknown as Arabs
CULTURE - KURDSKurds live in the border-lands of Iran, Iraq, Syria,and Turkey.They are Muslims, but notArabsTheir desire for self-rule is asource of political unrest insome countries
CULTURE - PERSIANS &FARSI Most of Iran’s people are Persians who speak Farsi Some Kurds and other ethnic groups in the region also speak farsi.