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  1. 1. • Reported Speech is the report of one Speaker or writer on the words said, written, or thought by someone else If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. • Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.
  2. 2. Types of Speeches • Statements • Questions • Requests
  3. 3. Statements When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: •pronouns •present tense verbs (3rd person singular) •place and time expressions •tenses (backshift) The examples : 1. Direct Speech : “ I speak English “ 2. Reported Speech ( no backshift ) : he says that he speaks english 3. Reported Speech ( backshift ) : he said that he spoke english
  4. 4. Questions When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: • pronouns • present tense verbs (3rd person singular) • place and time expressions • tenses (backshift) Also note that you have to: • transform the question into an indirect question • use the interrogative or if / whether
  5. 5. The examples for Questions direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?” reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English. direct speech “Do you speak English?” reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English. with interrogative without interrogative
  6. 6. REQUESTS When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: pronouns place and time expressions The Examples direct speech “Carol, speak English.“ reported speech He told Carol to speak English.
  7. 7. Additional Information and Exceptions Apart from the above mentioned basic rules, there are further aspects that you should keep in mind, for example: • main clauses connected with and / but • tense of the introductory clause • reported speech for difficult tenses • exceptions for backshift • requests with must, should, ought to and let’s
  8. 8. Sorry about the boring slides and animations Those are default contents of the PowerPoint itself