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Introduction to behavioral economics

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Rio Mata Centrer for Cognitive and Decision Sciences - University of Basel - Presentation at DayOne Experts event on digital nudges and behavioral economics in healthcare in Basel 11 April 2018

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Introduction to behavioral economics

  1. 1. Introduction to Behavioral Economics Rui Mata Center for Cognitive and Decision Sciences University of Basel
  2. 2. Behavioral and life style factors are key determinants of health http://thelancet.com/gbd/gbd-compare-visualisation Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., et al. (2016). Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388(10053), 1459–1544.
  3. 3. Behavioral sciences as a potential solution Daniel Kahneman Richard Thaler 20082011 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2017 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
  4. 4. Nudges 1. help decision makers achieve a desired goal 2. exploit known cognitive/motivational shortcomings 3. affect features over which people claim not to care about (e.g., position in a list, defaults, framing) 4. are in principle reversible, allowing the chooser to decide freely Grüne-Yanoff, T., & Hertwig, R. (2015). Nudge versus Boost: How coherent are policy and theory? Minds and Machines, 1–35.
  5. 5. A taxonomy of behavioral change techniques Michie, S., van Stralen, M. M., & West, R. (2011). The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science, 6(1), 42. Education Persuasion IncentivisationCoercion Restriction Training Restructuring Modeling Enablement
  6. 6. Evaluation is key but evidence is lacking
  7. 7. Incentivisation can work but lacks sustainability and long-term impact John, L. K., Loewenstein, G., Troxel, A. B., Norton, L., Fassbender, J. E., & Volpp, K. G. (2011). Financial incentives for extended weight loss: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(6), 621–626.
  8. 8. Incentivisation may not work for everyone Kupferschmidt, K. (2017). The science of persuasion. Science, 356(6336), 366–369.
  9. 9. Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Chapman, G. B. (2015). Using behavioral insights to increase vaccination policy effectiveness. Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2(1), 61–73. Brewer, N. T., Chapman, G. B., Rothman, A. J., Leask, J., & Kempe, A. (2017). Increasing vaccination: Putting psychological science into action. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 18(3), 149–207. Incentivisation may not work for everyone Different reasons for non-vaccination Confidence Complacency Convenience Calculation Incentivisation ✔ ✔ ✔ Debunking ✔ Reminders ✔
  10. 10. Betsch, C., Böhm, R., & Chapman, G. B. (2015). Using behavioral insights to increase vaccination policy effectiveness. Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2(1), 61–73. Brewer, N. T., Chapman, G. B., Rothman, A. J., Leask, J., & Kempe, A. (2017). Increasing vaccination: Putting psychological science into action. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 18(3), 149–207. Incentivisation may not work for everyone Different reasons for non-vaccination Confidence Complacency Convenience Calculation Incentivisation ✔ ✔ ✔ Debunking ✔ Reminders ✔
  11. 11. Future directions Michie, S., Thomas, J., Johnston, M., Mac Aonghusa, P., Shawe-Taylor, J., Kelly, M. P., et al. (2017). The Human Behaviour-Change Project: Harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation, 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-017-0641-5 Digitalisation and automatisation of experimentation and research synthesis http://www.ucl.ac.uk/human-behaviour-change Human Behaviour-Change Project
  12. 12. Take Home Message Nudges are a promising but only one of several tools in the behavioral-change toolkit Promise of digital deployment and automated evaluations Challenges regarding the use of nudges in healthcare - few studies and research syntheses so far - limited sustainability and long-term impact - heterogeneity of target populations

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