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Shakespeare his life and works


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Shakespeare is the playwright and widely recognized as the greatest writer in the English Language.

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Shakespeare his life and works

  1. 1. A portrait of William Shakespeare This is an engraved image of William Shakespeare in William Marshall Style.
  2. 2. William Shakespeare, poet and playwright, Shakespeare would have come to Holy Trinity every week when he was in town, i.e. all through his childhood and on his return to live at New Place. His wife Anne Hathaway is buried next to him along with his eldest daughter Susanna. Above the grave, a badly eroded stone slab displays his epitaph: GOOD FREND FOR IESUS SAKE FORBEARE,TO DIGG THE DVST ENCLOASED HEARE.BLESTE BE YE MAN YT SPARES THES STONES,AND CVRST BE HE YT MOVES MY BONES. Location of Shakespeare’s funerary monument, Holy Trinity Church
  3. 3. Chandos portrait- National Portrait Gallery WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE- 1564-1616
  4. 4. Romeo and Juliet Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. Verbal Irony in Romeo and Juliet, Act III Scene IV. Verbal irony occurs when a character says one thing and means another. This is an example of verbal irony from Romeo and Juliet.
  5. 5. Hamlet fights a duel Hamlet and Laertes select their foils (blunted swords used in fencing), and the king says that if Hamlet wins the first or second hit, he will drink to Hamlet’s health, then throw into the cup a valuable gem (actually the poison) and give the wine to Hamlet. The duel begins. Hamlet strikes Laertes but declines to drink from the cup, saying that he will play another hit first. He hits Laertes again, and Gertrude rises to drink from the cup
  6. 6. Verbal Irony in Romeo and Juliet, Act III Scene IV Indeed, I never shall be satisfied With Romeo, till I behold him dead —Is my poor heart for a kinsman vex’d. Madam , If you could find out but a man To bear a poidon, I would temper it; That Romeo should, upon receipt thereof, Soon slept in quiet. O, how my heart abhors To hear him named, and cannot come to him To wreck the love I bore my cousin Upon his body that slaugher’d him! (Juliet has just heard that Romeo has killed her cousin. Romeo and Juliet have been secretly married and here Juliet explains to her mother how angry she is because of her cousin Tybalt’s
  7. 7. IRONY Irony is a way of expression , through words or events which conveys a reality different from and usually opposite to appearance or expectation. A writer may say the opposite of what they mean, or create a reversal between expectation and its fulfillment, or give the audience knowledge that a character lacks, making the character’s words have meaning to the audience which is not Known by the character. (Irony in Hamlet, Act V, Scene II)  Dramatic Irony occurs when the audience knows something that a character or characters in a play don’t.  This is an example of dramatic irony from Shakespeare’s play Hamlet.  This scene occurs at the end of the play, Hamlet fights a duel with another character. Claudius wishes Hamlet dead and has plotted with Laertes, with whom Hamlet fights, to make sure Hamlet dies. Claudius also poisons the cup of wine from which Gertrude drinks to toast Hamlet during the fight. The audience knows that Gertrude’ s cup has been poisoned but she doesn’t.
  8. 8. SHAKESPEARE’s HOUSE Explore this historic market town and its surroundings and discover where Shakespeare was born and grew up, where he gained inspiration for his work. Now in the belonging of Shakespeare’s trust.
  9. 9. SHAKESPEARE’S BIRTHPLACE There are five houses linked to Shakespeare and his family - all around Stratford-upon- Avon -where he was born, lived, worked and lies buried. In town visit Shakespeare's Birthplace. Hall's Croft where his daughter lived and Nash's House the home of his granddaughter.  In the neighbouring village of Wilmcote visit Mary Arden's House - a rambling Tudor farmhouse which belonged to Shakespeare's mother. Anne Hathaway's Cottage nestles in the village of Shottery, on the edge of Stratford, and was the family home of Shakespeare's wife.  In Stratford Old Town by the River Avon is Holy Trinity Church - one of the most beautiful parish churches in England - where you can visit Shakespeare's grave.
  10. 10. HOLL’S CROFT Shakespeare ‘s daughter lived there.
  11. 11. HAMLET The prince of Denmark, and a student at the University of Wittenberg. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet’s father, King Hamlet, has recently died, and his mother, Queen Gertrude, has married the new king, Hamlet’s uncle Claudius. Hamlet is melancholy, bitter, and cynical, full of hatred for his uncle and disgust at his mother for marrying him. When the ghost of Hamlet’s father appears and claims to have been murdered by Claudius, Hamlet becomes obsessed with avenging his father’s death but keeps thinking of reasons why he should wait before killing Claudius—then chastizes himself for failing to act boldly. Hamlet is a character of contradictions. He admires characters like Fortinbras and the Player King, who behave passionately and even violently for no good reason, but is himself thoughtful, reflective, and philosophical. At times Hamlet is indecisive and hesitant, but at other times he is prone to rash and impulsive acts of violence.
  12. 12. NASH’s HOUSE This is the homeof his grand daughter
  13. 13. Shakespeare’sBaptismalRecord Though no birth records exist, church records indicate that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564.
  14. 14. Quotes All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice. I say there is no darkness but ignorance. I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.  BEST KNOWN FOR William Shakespeare, English poet, dramatist, and actor, often called the English national poet, is widely considered the greatest dramatist of all time.
  15. 15. Prose writing By using Prose, Shakespeare demonstrates that the discussion is less profound than others in the play. He often elevates his language to another level by using poetry. Shakespeare does not have a set pattern or rhythm. He wrote poetry and prose. Shakespeare often uses poetry to indicate unimportant events.
  16. 16. Prose in King Lear Shakespeare used Prose for important characters who would normally have used verse when speaking. When this happens, there is usually a point being made. In these instances consider when they are speaking differently from the way they normally do. GLOUCESTER : Kent banished thus? And France in choler parted?And the king gone tonight, prescribed his power confined to exhibition? All this done upon the gad?— Edmund, how now? What news?
  17. 17. Quick Facts  NAME: William Shakespeare  OCCUPATION: Playwright, Poet  BIRTH DATE: c. April 23, 1564  DEATH DATE: April 23, 1616  EDUCATION: King's New School  PLACE OF BIRTH: Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom  PLACE OF DEATH: Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom  NICKNAME: Bard of Avon  NICKNAME: Swan of Avon  AKA: Shakspere  AKA: Will Shakespeare  NICKNAME: The Bard
  18. 18. MARRIED LIFE  William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester, in Canterbury Province. Hathaway was from Shottery, a small village a mile west of Stratford. William was 18 and Anne was 26, and, as it turns out, pregnant. Their first child, a daughter they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamnet and Judith were born,. Hamnet later died of unknown causes at age 11.  It has often been inferred that Shakespeare came to dislike his wife, but there is no existing documentation or correspondence to support this supposition. For most of their married life, he lived in London, writing and performing his plays, while she remained in Stratford. However, according to John Aubrey, he returned to Stratford for a period every year.[7] When he retired from the theatre in 1613, he chose to live in Stratford with his wife, rather than London.
  19. 19. Hathaway married Shakespeare in November 1582 His age difference, together with Hathaway's antenuptial pregnancy, has been employed by some historians as evidence that it was a "shotgun wedding", forced on a reluctant Shakespeare by the Hathaway family.
  20. 20. Burial Hathaway was interred next to her husband in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford- upon-Avon. The inscription states, "Here lyeth the body of Anne wife of William Shakespeare who departed this life the 6th day of August 1623 being of the age of 67 years." A Latin inscription followed which translates as "Breasts, O mother, milk and life thou didst give. Woe is me – for how great a boon shall I give stones? How much rather would I pray that the good angel should move the stone so that, like Christ's body, thine image might come forth! But my prayers are unavailing. Come quickly, Christ, that my mother, though shut within this tomb may rise again and reach the stars."[11] The inscription may have been written by John Hall on behalf of his wife, Anne's daughter, Susanna.[3]
  21. 21. THEATRICAL BEGINNINGS IN LONDON  By 1592, there is evidence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London and possibly had several plays produced. In the September 20, 1592 edition of the Stationers' Register (a guild publication), there is an article by London playwright Robert Greene that takes a few jabs at William Shakespeare:  "...there [William Shakespeare] is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tiger's heart wrapped in a Player's hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you: and being an absolute Johannes factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country."  Scholars differ on the interpretation of this criticism, but most agree that it was Greene's way of saying Shakespeare was reaching above his rank, trying to match better known and educated playwrights likeChristopher Marlowe, Thomas Nashe or Greene himself.  By the early 1590s, documents show William Shakespeare was a managing partner in the Lord Chamberlain's Men, an acting company in London. After the crowning of King James I, in 1603, the company changed its name to the King's Men. From all accounts, the King's Men company was very popular, and records show that Shakespeare had works published and sold as popular literature. The theater culture in 16th-century England was not highly admired by people of high rank. However, many of the nobility were good patrons of the performing arts and friends of the actors. Early in his career, Shakespeare was able to attract the attention of Henry Wriothesley, the Earl of Southampton, to whom he dedicated his first published poems "Venus and Adonis" (1593) and "The Rape of Lucrece" (1594).
  22. 22. ESTABLISHING HIMSELF  By 1597, William Shakespeare had published 15 of the 37 plays attributed to him. Civil records show that at this time he purchased the second largest house in Stratford, called New House, for his family. It was a four-day ride by horse from Stratford to London, so it is believed that Shakespeare spent most of his time in the city writing and acting and came home once a year during the 40-day Lenten period, when the theaters were closed.  By 1599, William Shakespeare and his business partners built their own theater on the south bank of the Thames River, which they called the Globe. In 1605, Shakespeare purchased leases of real estate near Stratford for 440 pounds, which doubled in value and earned him 60 pounds a year. This made him an entrepreneur as well as an artist, and scholars believe these investments gave him the time to write his plays uninterrupted.
  23. 23. LATER WORKS: TRAGEDIES AND TRAGICOMEDIES It was in William Shakespeare's later period, after 1600, that he wrote the tragedies "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Othello" and "Macbeth." In these, Shakespeare's characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal. Possibly the best known of these plays is "Hamlet," with its exploration of betrayal, retribution, incest and moral failure. These moral failures often drive the twists and turns of Shakespeare's plots, destroying the hero and those he loves. In William Shakespeare's final period, he wrote tragicomedies. Among these are "Cymbeline," "The Winter's Tale," and "The Tempest." Though graver in tone than the comedies, they are not the dark tragedies of "King Lear" or "Macbeth" because they end with reconciliation and forgiveness.
  24. 24. Anne Hathway Cottage Enjoy the peace and tranquility of beautiful cottage gardens and traditional orchards
  25. 25. Shakespeare's Birthplace from Henley Street Shakespeare's Birthplace has been welcoming visitors for over 250 years. William Shakespeare grew up here and he played here. He ate meals in the hall and he slept and dreamed in these rooms. Shakespeare also spent the first five years of married life in this house with his new wife, Anne Hathaway. For millions of Shakespeare enthusiasts worldwide, the house is a shrine. You will discover the world that shaped the man and you'll find out what other famous writers thought when they visited here. Well-known visitors have included Charles Dickens, John Keats, Walter Scott and Thomas Hardy. Shakespeare's Birthplace is a fascinating house that offers a tantalising glimpse into Shakespeare's early world. It's a special place that everyone should see at
  26. 26. The most romantic Shakespeare’s House Willow Sculpture Trail Discover where the young William Shakespeare courted his future bride Anne Hathaway at her picturesque family home.
  27. 27. WRITING STYLE William Shakespeare's early plays were written in the conventional style of the day, with elaborate metaphors and rhetorical phrases that didn't always align naturally with the story's plot or characters. However, Shakespeare was very innovative, adapting the traditional style to his own purposes and creating a freer flow of words. With only small degrees of variation, Shakespeare primarily used a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter, or blank verse, to compose his plays. At the same time, there are passages in all the plays that deviate from this and use forms of poetry or simple prose.
  28. 28. EARLY WORKS: HISTORIES AND COMEDIES With the exception of "Romeo and Juliet," William Shakespeare's first plays were mostly histories written in the early 1590s. "Richard II" and "Henry VI," parts 1, 2, and 3 and "Henry V" dramatize the destructive results of weak or corrupt rulers and have been interpreted by drama historians as Shakespeare's way of justifying the origins of the Tudor dynasty. Shakespeare also wrote several comedies during his early period: the witty romance "A Midsummer Night's Dream," the romantic "Merchant of Venice," the wit and wordplay of "Much Ado About Nothing," the charming "As You Like It," and Twelfth Night. Other plays, possibly written before 1600, were "Titus Andronicus," "The Comedy of Errors," "The Taming of the Shrew" and "The Two Gentlemen of Verona."
  29. 29. Shakespeare’s Literary Devices USING OPPOSITES: Shakespeare uses opposite to make a point. The opposites are not obvious. LIFE IN THE FOREST LIFE AT COURT “ free from peril” “painted pomp” “ finds tongues in trees” “envious court” finds “books in the running brooks” “this life more sweet” “I would not change it” “winter’s wind,” “cold” and “icy fang” are counsellors that “feelingly persuade me what Iam”
  30. 30. Repetition Sometimes Shakespeare repeated words and ideas to give more force to a speech . Eg: The speech comes from “The Taming of the shrew”. Petruchio is supposed to be wooing Kate to be his wife. You lie, in faith, for you are call’d plain Kate, And bonny Kate and sometimes Kate the curst; But Kate, the prettiest Kate in Christendom For dainties are all Kates, and therefore , Kate, Take this of me, Kate of my consolation; Hearing thy mildness praised in every town, Thy virtues spoke of, and thy beauty sounded, Yet not so deeply as to thee belongs, Myself am moved to woo thee for my wife. THE TAMING OF THE SHREW- ACT II SCENE I
  31. 31. Shakespeare’s use of lists: A little like repeating the same idea or word making a list of items is also a powerful dramatic tool that Shakespeare used. Listing allows the audience to contemplate as item is added to them.  Eg: Cauldron scene from Macbeth Act IV Scene I Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble.
  32. 32. ACT IV, SCENE I FIRST WITCH Round about the cauldron go, In the poisoned entrails throw. Toad, that under cold stone. Days and nights has thirty-one. Sweltered venom sleeping got, Boil thou first i' th' charmèd pot. ALL Double, double toil and trouble, Fire burn, and cauldron bubble. SECOND WITCH Fillet of a fenny snake, In the cauldron boil and bake. Eye of newt and toe of frog, Wool of bat and tongue of dog, Adder’s fork and blind-worm’s sting, Lizard’s leg and owlet’s wing, For a charm of powerful trouble,Like a hell-broth boil and bubble ALL Double, double toil and trouble, Fire burn, and cauldron bubble.
  33. 33. HEIGHTENING TENSIONIn the play “Othello”, repetition is used in a very different way. In Act III Scene III Othello is being taunted by Iago, somebody he foolishly trusts. Iago, is plainly instills seeds of doubt in Othello’s mind about the relationship between Othello’s wife and Michael Cassio. In the extract from Othello, Iago is suggesting this unfaithfulness in an indirect way thus leaving Othello to make his own assumptions. Look at the way repeated words heighten the tension in this short extract. OTHELLO: Honest, ay, honest. IAGO: My lord, for aught I know. OTHELLO What dost thou think? IAGO Think, my lord? OTHELLO “Think, my lord?” Alas, thou echo's me As if there were some monster in thy thought Too hideous to be shown. Thou dost mean something. I heard thee say even now thou lik’st not that When Cassio left my wife. What didst not like? And when I told thee he was of my counsel Of my whole course of wooing, thou cried’st “Indeed?” And didst contract and purse thy brow together As if thou then hadst shut up in thy brain Some horrible conceit. If thou dost love me Show me thy thought.