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METABOLISM OF FOOD

Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta
Principal
Smt. S.C.U.Shah Home Science ...
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Why do we need food ?

The main nutrients the body needs are:

 carbohydrates for energy;
 protei...
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Nutrients in food

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Balanced Diet

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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METABOLISM

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Metabolite = Biological compound
Catabolism: All the reactions conc...
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What is digestion?

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The body carries out digestion of food to convert large
inso...
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Mechanical digestion

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Digestion begins in the mouth where food is broken down
by...
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The stomach

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After food is swallowed it enters the stomach, which is
basically a...
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The small intestine

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From the stomach, food enters the small intestine
where dig...
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The large intestine

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After the small intestine, the remains
of any undigested fo...
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Digestive enzymes

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Digestive enzymes are the chemicals that break large
insolubl...
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Types of digestive enzymes

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Digestive enzymes are the chemicals
that break large...
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Digestive enzyme

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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carbohydrate digestion

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Carbohydrates are chains of identical sugar
molecules.
T...
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carbohydrate digestion

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Carbohydrate Absorption

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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protein digestion

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Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 20 different
t...
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protein digestion

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Protein Absorption

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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fat digestion

 Firstly, bile (released by the gall bladder) allows the fat to ...
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fat digestion

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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fat absorption

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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fat absorption

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Catabolism

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Breakdown of macromolecules to
building blocks -- generally hydrolyt...
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Breakdown of monomers
to common intermediates

amino
acids

glucose,
other sugars

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3-Breakdown of intermediates to CO2
and electrons is accomplished
through a cent...
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proteins

amino
acids
NH4+

polysaccharides

glucose,
other sugars

lipids

glyc...
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Carbohydrate Metabolism

glycogen

Pentose

GLUCOSE

other
sugars

pyruvate

lac...
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METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
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METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
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Energy Investment.

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hexokinase or glucokinase

ATP

ADP

glucose
glucose 6-phosp...
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Isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate

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phosphoglucoisomerase

glucose 6-phosphate...
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Second phosphorylation

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phosphofructokinase

ATP

ADP

fructose 6-phosphate

fru...
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Cleavage to two triose phosphates

aldolase

HC=O
H2COP
HCOH
O=C
HCOP +
CH2OH
H

glyceraldehyde
3-p...
Isomerization of
Dihydroxyacetone
phosphate

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triose-phosphate isomerase

H2C-OH
C=O
CH2-O- P

dihyd...
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Oxidation of glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate

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glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenas...
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Transfer phosphate to make ATP

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phosphoglycerate kinase

-

O=C-O- P
HC-OH + P
H...
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Phosphate shift setup
phosphoglycerate mutase

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Generation of second very high
energy compound by a dehydration

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enolase

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. M...
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Final generation of ATP

pyruvate kinase
P
O H
-OOC-C=CH

ADP

phosphoenolpyruvate

METABOLISM

ATP...
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Input = 2 ATP
1. glucose + ATP
 glucose-6-P
2. fructose-6-P + ATP  fructose 1,...
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Gluconeogenesis

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Oxidation of pyruvate
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Intermediate step between
glycolysis and the kreb’s cycle

...
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FAD+, lipoic acid + NAD+ CoA
and thiamine pyrophosphate CO2
+ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

METABOLISM

...
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Citric acid cycle

METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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Per acetyl-CoA
3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 ATP
2 CO2
Per glucose
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
6 CO2...
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METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
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METABOLISM

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METABOLISM

Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
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Metabolism

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Metabolism

  1. 1. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM OF FOOD Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta Principal Smt. S.C.U.Shah Home Science and C.U.Shah Arts & Commerce Mahila College Wadhwancity – Dist: Surendranagar METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  2. 2. For Mixing your Video Why do we need food ? The main nutrients the body needs are:  carbohydrates for energy;  proteins for growth and repair;  fats to store energy;  vitamins and minerals to keep the body healthy. The amount of each food type needed is related to the proportions in the food pyramid. Which food type does the body need the most of? METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  3. 3. For Mixing your Video Nutrients in food METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  4. 4. For Mixing your Video Balanced Diet METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  5. 5. For Mixing your Video METABOLISM Broadcasting LOGO Metabolite = Biological compound Catabolism: All the reactions concerned with breaking down compounds and generating and storing energy for the needs of the cell and organism. Energy = ATP Anabolism: All the reactions concerned with the biosynthesis of complex compounds from simpler compounds. Usually use ATP. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  6. 6. For Mixing your Video What is digestion? Broadcasting LOGO The body carries out digestion of food to convert large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble ones. carbohydrate molecule protein molecule fat molecule Small food molecules can pass through the walls of the small intestine and then dissolve into the blood stream. Large food molecules cannot do this. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  7. 7. For Mixing your Video Mechanical digestion Broadcasting LOGO Digestion begins in the mouth where food is broken down by the teeth. This is called mechanical breakdown. The small parts of food are mixed with saliva and swallowed. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  8. 8. For Mixing your Video The stomach Broadcasting LOGO After food is swallowed it enters the stomach, which is basically a muscular bag filled with hydrochloric acid. food enters from the gullet  the chemical breakdown of food begins;  microbes are destroyed. muscle tissue food leaves the stomach METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  9. 9. For Mixing your Video The small intestine Broadcasting LOGO From the stomach, food enters the small intestine where digestion is completed and the small digested food molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  10. 10. For Mixing your Video The large intestine Broadcasting LOGO After the small intestine, the remains of any undigested food travel to the large intestine. All that is left of the food is water and waste material. The water is valuable and so is absorbed in the large intestine into the blood stream. The waste material cannot be digested or used by the body. This undigested waste travels to the rectum where it is stored until leaving the body through the anus. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  11. 11. For Mixing your Video Digestive enzymes Broadcasting LOGO Digestive enzymes are the chemicals that break large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble molecules. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  12. 12. For Mixing your Video Types of digestive enzymes Broadcasting LOGO Digestive enzymes are the chemicals that break large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble molecules. Digestive enzymes are classified by the type of food that they affect, so there are three main types:  carbohydrase – breaks carbohydrate into smaller sugars.  protease – breaks protein into amino acids.  lipase – breaks fat into fatty acids and glycerol. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  13. 13. For Mixing your Video Digestive enzyme METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  14. 14. For Mixing your Video carbohydrate digestion Broadcasting LOGO Carbohydrates are chains of identical sugar molecules. The digestive enzymes called carbohydrases break the chemical bonds between the individual sugar molecules in each carbohydrate chain. carbohydrase long carbohydrate molecule METABOLISM sugar molecules Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  15. 15. For Mixing your Video carbohydrate digestion METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  16. 16. For Mixing your Video Carbohydrate Absorption METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  17. 17. For Mixing your Video protein digestion Broadcasting LOGO Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 20 different types of amino acids. Proteins are digested by digestive enzymes called proteases. These enzymes work in an acidic environment to break proteins into smaller amino acids. protease long protein molecule METABOLISM amino acid molecules Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  18. 18. For Mixing your Video protein digestion METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  19. 19. For Mixing your Video Protein Absorption METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  20. 20. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO fat digestion  Firstly, bile (released by the gall bladder) allows the fat to “mix” with water by breaking the fat into smaller droplets. This is called emulsification. bile Secondly, the digestive enzyme lipase breaks each fat molecule into the smaller glycerol fatty acid molecules . lipase fat molecule METABOLISM + glycerol fatty acids Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  21. 21. For Mixing your Video fat digestion METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  22. 22. For Mixing your Video fat absorption METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  23. 23. For Mixing your Video fat absorption METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  24. 24. Catabolism For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO Breakdown of macromolecules to building blocks -- generally hydrolytic protein polysaccharide lipid nucleic acids amino glucose, glycerol ribose,het acids other sugars fatty acids bases, phosphate no useable energy yield here- only building blocks obtained METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  25. 25. For Mixing your Video Breakdown of monomers to common intermediates amino acids glucose, other sugars Broadcasting LOGO glycerol, fatty acids pyruvate NH4+ acetyl CoA citric acid cycle  ETS/Ox Phos  ATP CO2 Oxidative processes- ATP & NADH METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  26. 26. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO 3-Breakdown of intermediates to CO2 and electrons is accomplished through a central oxidative pathway: the Citric Acid Cycle or TCA or the Krebs Cycle. This cycle leads to the production of ATP by processes called electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  27. 27. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO proteins amino acids NH4+ polysaccharides glucose, other sugars lipids glycerol fatty acids pyruvate acetyl CoA Common Intermediates citric acid cycle CO2 Daxa N. Mehta METABOLISM Dr. CO2
  28. 28. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO Carbohydrate Metabolism glycogen Pentose GLUCOSE other sugars pyruvate lactate acetyl CoA TCA cycle METABOLISM ETS EtOH ATP Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  29. 29. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  30. 30. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  31. 31. For Mixing your Video Energy Investment. Broadcasting LOGO hexokinase or glucokinase ATP ADP glucose glucose 6-phosphate METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  32. 32. For Mixing your Video Isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate Broadcasting LOGO phosphoglucoisomerase glucose 6-phosphate fructose 6-phosphate aldose to ketose isomerization reversible METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  33. 33. For Mixing your Video Second phosphorylation Broadcasting LOGO phosphofructokinase ATP ADP fructose 6-phosphate fructose 1,6 bisphosphate -second ATP investment highly exergonic, -Essentially irreversible, highly regulated, -modulating carbon flux through glycolysis in response to energy and carbon requirements METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  34. 34. For Mixing your Video Cleavage to two triose phosphates aldolase HC=O H2COP HCOH O=C HCOP + CH2OH H glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dihydroxyacetone phosphate where P = phosphate  cleaves a 6C sugar to 2 3C sugars METABOLISM Broadcasting LOGO Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  35. 35. Isomerization of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate For Mixing your Video triose-phosphate isomerase H2C-OH C=O CH2-O- P dihydroxyacetone phosphate METABOLISM glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  36. 36. For Mixing your Video Oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Broadcasting LOGO glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase OH + OPOH NAD NADH O- glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate METABOLISM O HOPO O C=O HCOH H2C O- P 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  37. 37. For Mixing your Video Transfer phosphate to make ATP Broadcasting LOGO phosphoglycerate kinase - O=C-O- P HC-OH + P H2C-O-P P Adenosine 1,3PG ADP METABOLISM O=C-OH P HC-OH + P H2C-O-P P Adenosine 3-phosphoglycerate ATP Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  38. 38. For Mixing your Video Phosphate shift setup phosphoglycerate mutase METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  39. 39. Generation of second very high energy compound by a dehydration For Mixing your Video enolase METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  40. 40. For Mixing your Video Final generation of ATP pyruvate kinase P O H -OOC-C=CH ADP phosphoenolpyruvate METABOLISM ATP O -OOC-C-CH 3 pyruvate Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  41. 41. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO Input = 2 ATP 1. glucose + ATP  glucose-6-P 2. fructose-6-P + ATP  fructose 1,6 bisphosphate Output = 4 ATP + 2 NADH 1. 2 glyceraldehyde 3-P + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+  2 (1,3 bisphosphoglycerate) + 2 NADH 2. 2 (1,3 bisphosphoglycerate) + 2 ADP  2 (3-P-glycerate) + 2 ATP 3. 2 PEP + 2 ADP  2 pyruvate + 2 ATP Net = 2 ATP and 2 NADH METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  42. 42. For Mixing your Video Gluconeogenesis METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  43. 43. For Mixing your Video Oxidation of pyruvate Broadcasting LOGO Intermediate step between glycolysis and the kreb’s cycle METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  44. 44. For Mixing your Video FAD+, lipoic acid + NAD+ CoA and thiamine pyrophosphate CO2 + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  45. 45. For Mixing your Video Citric acid cycle METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta Broadcasting LOGO
  46. 46. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO Per acetyl-CoA 3 NADH 1 FADH2 1 ATP 2 CO2 Per glucose 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP 6 CO2 METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  47. 47. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  48. 48. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta
  49. 49. For Mixing your Video Broadcasting LOGO METABOLISM Dr. Daxa N. Mehta

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