Gprs 110901034127-phpapp02


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Gprs 110901034127-phpapp02

  1. 1. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) by Deniz KILINÇ (
  2. 2. Introduction (1/3)  From along time, wireless WANs have promised instant access to information from anywhere.  But the reality has been otherwise, existing cellular data services do not fulfill the needs of users and providers.  From the user's point of view;  Data rates are too slow, Connection speeds that have a restriction at a maximum rate of 14.4Kbits/sec for most networks.  The connection setup takes too long and complicated  The service is too expensive
  3. 3. Introduction (2/3)  From the technical point of view  The drawback results from the fact that current wireless data services are based on circuit switched radio transmission.  A complete traffic channel is allocated for a single user for the entire call period and this results in a highly inefficient resource utilization  In circuit switched services, billing is based on the duration of the connection
  4. 4. Introduction (3/3)  Packet switched bearer services result in a much better utilization of the traffic channels.  A channel will only be allocated when needed and released immediately after the transmission of the packets.  With this principle, multiple users can share one physical channel.  In order to address the inefficiencies, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) have been developed
  5. 5. What is GPRS?(1/2)  New service for GSM that greatly improves and simplifies wireless access to packet data networks.  Standardized by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute).  Networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and X.25  Theoretically maximum rate is just 171. 2 Kbits/sec.  A realistic estimation on transfer is between 5 and 40 kbps.
  6. 6. What is GPRS? (2/2)  It applies a packet radio principle to transfer user data packets in an efficient way.  This principle offers a more user-friendly billing than that offered by circuit switched services.  User can be "online" over a long period of time but will be billed based on the transmitted data volume.
  7. 7. Advantages of GPRS  Improves the utilization of the radio resources  Multiple users can share one physical channel  Volume-based billing  Higher transfer rates  Max 171.2Kbits/sec  Shorter access times  Simplifies the access to packet data networks
  8. 8. GSM to 3G (1/3) 2.5G
  9. 9. GSM to 3G (2/3)  GSM (Global System For Mobile) : is known as a 2G digital. GSM has maximum data speeds of 9.6kbit/s and is based on circuit switching technology.  HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data): Concentrates up to four GSM time slots and allows data speeds of up to 64kbit/s. It is primarily used for notebooks with a data card. Generally used countries are Finland, Norway and Hong Kong.
  10. 10. GSM to 3G (3/3)  EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution): Increases to data rates on GSM to 384kbit/s by bundling up to 8 channels. GPRS is based on a modulation technique known as Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). Edge is based on new modulation scheme that allows a much higher bit rate across the air interface – this is called eight- phase-shift-keying (8 PSK).  3G (Third Generation Mobile): Have regional names such as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System). UMTS is the direct evolution for GSM/GPRS networks. UMTS can support both IP and non-IP traffic in a variety of modes including packet, circuit switched and virtual circuit.
  11. 11. GSM Architecture (1/3) Database
  12. 12. GSM Architecture (2/3)  A cell is formed by the radio area coverage of a base transceiver station (BTS).  The combined traffic of the mobile stations in their respective cells is routed through a switch, the mobile switching center (MSC).  Connections originating from or terminating in the network are handled by a gateway mobile switching center (GMSC). GSM networks consist of at least one administrative region, which is assigned to a MSC. Each administrative region is made up of at least one location area (LA). A location area consists of several cell groups. Each cell group is assigned to a BSC.
  13. 13. GSM Architecture (3/3)  HLR stores permanent data (such as the user's profile) as well as temporary data (such as the user's current location) for all users registered with a network operator. In case of a call to a user, the HLR is always first queried, to determine the user's current location.  A VLR is responsible for a group of location areas and stores the data of those users who are currently in its area of responsibility  The AUC generates and stores security-related data such as keys used for authentication and encryption  EIR registers equipment data.
  14. 14. GSM Addresses and Identifiers  International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) :19 digit, uniquely identifies a mobile station internationally.  International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) : Each registered user is uniquely identified by its IMSI. 3 digit Mobile Country Code + 2 digit Mobile Network Code + 10 digit Mobile Subscriber Identification Number.  Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN) : Up to 3 digit Country Code + 2-3 digit national Destination Code + max 10 digit Subscriber Number. It is the "real telephone number" of a mobile station.  NSAPI (Network Service Access Point Identifier) : Allocated during the PDP context activation for the new PDP context
  15. 15. GPRS Architecture(1/3) TransP. SignalP .
  16. 16. GPRS Architecture(2/3)  A serving GPRS support node (SGSN) is responsible for  Delivery of data packets from and to the mobile stations within its service area.  Packet routing and transfer  Mobility management (attach/detach and location management)  Authentication and charging functions. The location register of the SGSN stores location information and user profiles (IMSI, addresses used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with this SGSN.
  17. 17. GPRS Architecture(3/3)  A gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) acts as an interface between the GPRS backbone network and the external packet data networks.  It converts the GPRS packets coming from the SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol (PDP) format (IP or X.25) and sends them out on the corresponding packet data network.  In the other direction, PDP addresses of incoming data packets are converted to the GSM address of the destination user. The readdressed packets are sent to the responsible SGSN. For this purpose, the GGSN stores the current SGSN address of the user and his or her profile in its location register.  Also performs authentication and charging functions.
  18. 18.  When either voice or data traffic is originated at the subscriber terminal, it is transported over the air interface to the BTS, and from the BTS to the BSC in the same way as a standard GSM call.  BSC require a software upgrade, as well as the installation of a new piece of hardware called a packet control unit (PCU) for GPRS. The PCU directs the data traffic to the GPRS network and can be a separate hardware element associated with the BSC. How voice and data is seperated?
  19. 19. How voice and data is seperated?
  20. 20. GPRS Mobility Management  GPRS Attachment  GPRS Detachment  Location Management
  21. 21. GPRS Attachment Procedure  Before a mobile station can use GPRS services, it must register with an SGSN of the GPRS network. This procedure follows as ; Attach request which includes IMSI which then processed by the network to P-TMSI. mobile is authenticated with the mobile's Home Location Register SGSN does an update of the GPRS location SGSN sends an "Attach Accept" message to the mobile mobile responds with an "Attach Complete"
  22. 22. GPRS Detachment Procedure  The disconnection from the GPRS. It can be initiated by the mobile station or by the network (SGSN).  In MS initiated one; MS informs that it wants to leave the system, this is MS’s wish. If any contexts are active, network will clear them. Afterwards MS’s location is not tracked anymore.  In Network initiated one; Network wants to “get rid of the MS” because of;  Ill behaving mobile  Congested network  Immediate service termination (IST)(E.g. Bills are not paid)  Load new parameters (Configuration has been changed and they should be taken into use)
  23. 23. Location Management(1/4)  Aim is to keep track of the user's current location, so that incoming packets can be routed to his or her MS.  If the MS sends update messages seldom, its location is not known exactly, resulting in a significant delivery delay.  On the other hand, if location updates happen very often, the MS's location is well known to the network, and the data packets can be delivered without any additional delay. But, quite a lot of uplink radio capacity and battery power is consumed for mobility management.
  24. 24. Location Management (2/4)  A MS can be in one of three states depending on its current traffic amount; the location update frequency is dependent on the state of the MS
  25. 25. Location Management (3/4)  In IDLE state the MS is not reachable. Performing a GPRS attach, the MS gets into READY state. With a GPRS detach it may disconnect from the network and fall back to IDLE state. All PDP contexts will be deleted.  The STANDBY state will be reached when an MS does not send any packets for a longer period of time, and therefore the READY timer, which was started at GPRS attach, expires.  In IDLE state, no location updating is performed, the current location of the MS is unknown to the network.
  26. 26. Location Management (4/4)  An MS in READY state informs its SGSN of every movement to a new cell(in GSM).  In GPRS, for the location management of an MS in STANDBY state, a GSM location area (LA) is divided into several routing areas (RA). In general, an RA consists of several cells. The SGSN will only be informed when an MS moves to a new RA; cell changes will not be disclosed. Whenever an MS moves to a new RA, it sends a "routing area update request" to its assigned SGSN. The message contains the routing area identity (RAI) of its old RA.  In same SGSN routing area update  In different SGSN routing area update
  27. 27. Session Management (1/4)  To exchange data packets with external PDNs after a successful GPRS attach, a mobile station must apply for one or more addresses used in the PDN, e.g., for an IP address in case the PDN is an IP network.  This address is called PDP address (Packet Data Protocol address).
  28. 28. Session Management (2/4)  The allocation of the PDP address can be static or dynamic.  Static : The network operator of the user's home-PLMN permanently assigns a PDP address to the user.  Dynamic : PDP address is assigned to the user upon activation of a PDP context.  The PDP address can be assigned by the operator of the user's home-PLMN (dynamic home-PLMN PDP address)  By the operator of the visited network (dynamic visited- PLMN PDP address).  In case of dynamic PDP address assignment, the GGSN is responsible for the allocation and the activation/ deactivation of the PDP addresses
  29. 29. Session Management (3/4)  For each session, a PDP context is created, which describes the characteristics of the session. It contains;  the PDP type (e.g., IPv4),  the PDP address assigned to the mobile station (e.g.,,  the requested QoS,  the address of a GGSN that serves as the access point to the PDN  This context is stored in the MS, the SGSN, and the GGSN. With an active PDP context, the mobile station is "visible" for the external PDN and is able to send and receive data packets. The mapping between the two addresses, PDP and IMSI, enables the GGSN to transfer data packets between PDN and MS.
  30. 30. Session Management (4/4)  PDP context activation procedure
  31. 31. Quality of Service  GPRS allows defining QoS profiles using the parameters service precedence, reliability, delay, and throughput.  The service precedence is the priority : high, normal, and low.  The reliability indicates the transmission characteristics required by an application. Three reliability classes are defined, which guarantee certain maximum values for the probability of loss, duplication, mis-sequencing, and corruption (an undetected error) of packets.  The delay parameters define maximum values for the mean delay. The delay is defined as the end-to-end transfer time between two communicating mobile stations or between a mobile station and the Gi interface to an external packet data network.  The throughput specifies the maximum bit rate and the mean bit rate.
  32. 32. Quality of Service (Cont...) Reliability classes Delay classes
  33. 33. Multiple Access and Radio Resource Management Principles(1/3)
  34. 34.  On the physical layer, GSM uses a combination of FDMA and TDMA for multiple access. Two frequency bands 45 MHz apart have been reserved for GSM operation: 890 ­ 915 MHz for transmission from the mobile station, i.e., uplink, and 935 ­ 960 MHz for transmission from the BTS, i.e., downlink. Each of these bands of 25 MHz width is divided into 124 single carrier channels of 200 kHz width. A certain number of these frequency channels, the so- called cell allocation, is allocated to a BTS, i.e., to a cell  Each of the 200 kHz frequency channels carries eight TDMA channels by dividing each of them into eight time slots Multiple Access and Radio Resource Management Principles (2/3)
  35. 35.  Theoretically, a user could have all eight time slots in the radio channel, but carriers are likely to limit the number of download slots to four (or fewer), for a maximum of 52Kbits/sec, and the number of slots available for uploads to one, for a maximum of 13Kbits/sec.  The principal reasons for limiting the number of time slots are to reduce the device's power consumption, temperature, and cost, and to increase the number of simultaneous users the network can support  GPRS allows a single mobile station to transmit on multiple time slots of the same TDMA frame (multislot operation). This results in a very flexible channel allocation: one to eight time slots per TDMA frame can be allocated for one mobile station. Moreover, uplink and downlink are allocated separately, which efficiently supports asymmetric data traffic (e.g., Web browsing). Multiple Access and Radio Resource Management Principles (3/3)
  36. 36. Logical Channels in GPRS Above physical channels, a series of logical channels are defined to perform a series of functions which are signaling, broadcast of general system information, synchronization, channel assignment, paging, or payload transport
  37. 37. Uplink channel allocation
  38. 38. GPRS Transmission Plane ARCH.
  39. 39. GTP(GPRS Tunneling Protocol) Between SGSN and ­ GGSN  The GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) tunnels the user data packets between the GPRS support nodes (GSNs). No other systems need to be aware of GTP. The protocol is defined both between GSNs within one PLMN (Gn interface) and between GSNs of different PLMNs.  In the transmission plane, GTP employs a tunnel mechanism to transfer user data packets.  GTP packets carry the user's IP or X.25 packets. Below GTP, the standard protocols TCP or UDP are employed to transport the GTP packets within the backbone network.  X.25 expects a reliable data link, thus TCP is used.  UDP is used for access to IP-based packet data networks, which do not expect reliability in the network layer or below. IP is employed in the network layer to route packets through the backbone. Ethernet, ISDN, or ATM-based protocols may be used below IP.
  40. 40. GTP header LFN : Flag indicating whether the LLC frame number is included or not. Message Type : Type of GTP message. Sequence number : Transaction identity for signaling messages and an increasing sequence number for tunneled T-PDUs. Flow label : Identifies unambiguously a GTP flow. LLC frame number : Used at the Inter SGSN Routing Update procedure to coordinate the data transmissions on the link layer between the MS and the SGSN. x : Spare bits x indicate the unused bits which are set to 0 by the sending side and are ignored by the receiving side. FN : Continuation of LLC frame number. TID : Tunnel identifier that points out MM and PDP contexts
  41. 41. GTP encapsulation
  42. 42. Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol  Used to transfer data packets between SGSN and MS. And also uses the services provided by the LLC layer and the Session Management (SM) sub-layer. Its functionality includes:  Multiplexing  Compression  Data Transfer of SN(UNIT) Data
  43. 43. SNDCP Multiplexing  Multiplexing of several connections of the network layer onto one virtual logical connection of the underlying LLC layer. Each PDP context is defined with TLLI+NSAPI.
  44. 44. SNDCP Compression
  45. 45. M : More bit. Values may be: 0 Last segment of N-PDU 1 Not the last segment of N-PDU, more segments to follow. T : SN-PDU type specifies C : Compression indicator. A value of 0 indicates that compression fields, DCOMP and PCOMP, are not included. A value of 1 indicates that these fields are included. X : Spare bit is set to 0. DCOMP :Data compression coding, included if C-bit set PCOMP : Protocol control information compression coding Segment offset : Segment offset from the beginning of the N-PDU in units of 128 octets. N-PDU number : 0-2047 when the extension bit is set to 0; 2048-524287 if the extension bit is set to 1. E : Extension bit for N-PDU number. 0 Next octet is used for data. 1 Next octet is used for N-PDU number extensions. SNDCP Data Transfer SN-PDU
  46. 46. Data Link Layer (1/2)  Between the MS and the network is divided into two sublayers:  the LLC layer (between MS-SGSN)  the RLC/MAC layer (between MS-BSS)  The logical link control (LLC) layer provides a highly reliable logical link between an MS and its assigned SGSN. Its functionality is based on the well known HDLC protocol and includes sequence control, flow control, detection of transmission errors. The data confidentiality is ensured by ciphering functions. Variable frame lengths are possible.
  47. 47. Data Link Layer (2/2)  The RLC/MAC layer at the includes two functions.  To establish a reliable link between the MS and the BSS. This includes the segmentation and reassembly of LLC frames into RLC data blocks.  The medium access control (MAC) layer controls the access attempts of an MS on the radio channel shared by several MSs. It employs algorithms, multi-user multiplexing on a PDTCH, and scheduling and prioritizing based on the negotiated QoS.
  48. 48. Physical Layer  The physical layer between MS and BSS is divided into the two sublayers: the physical link layer (PLL) and the physical RF Layer (RFL).  The PLL provides a physical channel between the MS and the BSS. Its tasks include channel coding (detection of transmission errors, forward error correction (FEC), indication of uncorrectable codewords), interleaving, and detection of physical link congestion.  The RFL operates below the PLL. Responsible for modulation and demodulation.
  49. 49. BSS ­ SGSN Interface  The BSS GPRS Application Protocol (BSSGP) : The primary functions of the BSSGP include:  Provision -SGSN to a BSS- radio related information used by the RLC/MAC (in the downlink).  Provision -BSS to an SGSN- radio related information derived from the RLC/MAC (In the uplink).  The underlying Network Service (NS) protocol is based on the Frame Relay protocol. The Network Service performs the transport of NS PDUs between the SGSN (serving GPRS support node) and BSS (base station system).
  50. 50. GPRS Signaling Plane ARCH.
  51. 51. GPRS Signaling Plane  GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management (GMM/SM) protocol supports mobility and session management when performing functions such as GPRS attach/detach, security functions, PDP context activation, and routing area updates
  52. 52. GPRS Tariffing and Charging  There exists an extra charging gateway and billing system.  Charging gateway makes a log entry whenever there is network activity such as data being transferred. The main functions of the charging gateway are the collection of GPRS data records from the GPRS nodes  GPRS may have many tariffing dimensions;  Number of packets transmitted  Type of content  Value of content  Number of messages  Number of mails sent and received  Mailbox size  Number of web pages hit  Time of day  Location specific  Uplink/downlink volume
  53. 53. Applications of GPRS  Textual and Visual Information  Still Images  Web Browsing  Document Sharing  Corporate Email  Internet Email  Vehicle Positioning  File Transfer
  54. 54. Thank you…