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Defensive Driving training manual.

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EPC of JIC Cooling Plant 098-C58
Dawood Akbar
Azmeel HSE Department
(098-C58)
DEFENSIVE DRIVING
Youthful Drivers
(Under 25)
• Account for 28% of drivers involved in collisions
• Quicker at reacting to hazards
• Slower at detecting and recognizing hazards
Defensive Driving
Middle Age Drivers
(25 – 54)
• More experience and time behind the wheel
• Driving destinations tend to have a purpose
• Stress and fatigue caused by work or family influences
driving
Defensive Driving
Mature Drivers
(55 & Older)
• Drive more slowly
• Drivers within their capabilities
• Drive shorter distances
• Have a lot of experience behind the wheel
• Drive on familiar streets and roads
Defensive Driving
Safety Belts
• 80% of people killed in rollovers were not wearing them.
• Ejection results in many injuries and deaths.
• In a roll over without a safety belt, the body typically
impacts the interior of the vehicle as it is thrown about.
Defensive Driving
Lap/shoulder safety belts
reduce risk of moderate-to-
fatal injuries by approximately
50%.
Air bags for driver & passenger
combined with lap/shoulder
belts reduce risk of fatality by
another 10%.
Defensive Driving

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Defensive driving azmeel

  • 1. EPC of JIC Cooling Plant 098-C58 Dawood Akbar Azmeel HSE Department (098-C58) DEFENSIVE DRIVING
  • 2. Youthful Drivers (Under 25) • Account for 28% of drivers involved in collisions • Quicker at reacting to hazards • Slower at detecting and recognizing hazards Defensive Driving
  • 3. Middle Age Drivers (25 – 54) • More experience and time behind the wheel • Driving destinations tend to have a purpose • Stress and fatigue caused by work or family influences driving Defensive Driving
  • 4. Mature Drivers (55 & Older) • Drive more slowly • Drivers within their capabilities • Drive shorter distances • Have a lot of experience behind the wheel • Drive on familiar streets and roads Defensive Driving
  • 5. Safety Belts • 80% of people killed in rollovers were not wearing them. • Ejection results in many injuries and deaths. • In a roll over without a safety belt, the body typically impacts the interior of the vehicle as it is thrown about. Defensive Driving
  • 6. Lap/shoulder safety belts reduce risk of moderate-to- fatal injuries by approximately 50%. Air bags for driver & passenger combined with lap/shoulder belts reduce risk of fatality by another 10%. Defensive Driving
  • 7. Mirror Adjustment In a normal seating position, you should not be able to see any part of your own vehicle in the side-view mirrors. Adjust the side-view mirrors just beyond the point where you could see the side of the car on the inside edge of the mirror. Defensive Driving
  • 8. Steering • Both hands on the wheel at the 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock positions. • Reduce speed for obstacles in the road and proceed cautiously when possible. • Do not apply the brake quickly while turning or you could spin the vehicle. • Do not turn any more than needed to clear whatever is in your path. Defensive Driving
  • 9. Braking • Brake early and smoothly. • When you apply the brakes, your vehicle does not stop – it slows to a stop. • The faster you are driving, the farther your vehicle will travel before it stops. Cover your brakes when: • You suspect the other vehicle may not yield or stop. • Traveling through an intersection. • There is stop-and-go traffic in the area. • Children are playing. • In a parking lot. • In residential areas. Defensive Driving
  • 10. Stopping Distance The distance it takes for an average passenger car to come to a complete stop. • Varies depending on several factors: speed, condition of the driver, the vehicle, the road, and the weather • Stopping Distance = Reaction Time + Braking Distance Defensive Driving
  • 11. Stopping Distance Reaction time • The length of time it takes visual information to be sent to the part of the brain that makes a motion judgment and action begins • A person average Reaction Time is ¾ of a second • To calculate – take the 1st digit of your speedometer reading and add it to your speed Defensive Driving
  • 12. Stopping Distance 4 Second Plus Rule City traffic: 4 second gap in perfect conditions • Add additional seconds for each adverse condition • Being tailgated by a car? add 2 seconds • Being tailgated by a semi? add 6 seconds • Following a motorcycle? add 1 second • Wet Pavement? add 1 second • Reduced visibility? add 1 second • Towing a trailer? add 1 second for each 10 ft of additional vehicle, but no less than 2 seconds Defensive Driving
  • 13. Stopping Distance Braking Distance The distance the vehicle travels once the brake is applied • 20 MPH: 18 – 20 feet • 55 MPH: 132 – 164 feet • 65 MPH: 196 – 245 feet Defensive Driving
  • 14. Stopping Distance and Speed • Stopping distance increases as speed increases. • Double your speed and you have four times as much momentum and will take a lot longer to stop. Defensive Driving
  • 15. Driving in Traffic • Always attempt to scan 15 seconds ahead of where you are. • Following distance behind the vehicle in front of you. • 4 seconds in the city • 3 seconds on the highway 15 Seconds Defensive Driving
  • 16. • Use a 2-second delayed start before proceeding from a stopped position. • This delay prevents rear-end collisions after false starts and allows the intersection to clear Driving in Traffic Defensive Driving
  • 17. • When stopping behind another vehicle, make sure you can see the rear tires. • Watch your mirrors. • This gap is your escape route if a vehicle is likely to hit you from the rear. Driving in Traffic Defensive Driving
  • 18. Scan and monitor all space around your vehicle. • Try to keep a gap on either side that you can use in an emergency. • Keep your eyes moving • Avoid staring at one object for too long. • Practice scanning around your vehicle every 10 seconds. • For better visibility, separate from vehicles that block your view – trucks, vans, etc. Driving in Traffic Defensive Driving
  • 19. Highway Driving • Avoid lane changes unless absolutely necessary. • Always use your signals with ample notice to other drivers. • When merging, signal and move steadily into the drive-lane. • Don’t cut off other vehicles. • Don’t drive in other cars’ blind spots. • When changing lanes, use both mirrors and a brief head-turn back. • Have the front seat passenger assist you, if needed. Defensive Driving
  • 20. Common unsafe driving practices Failing to stop or yield Tailgating Not using blinkers Using Cell Phones Driving at an unsafe speed Unsafe passing of another vehicle Not using a seatbelt Driving at an unsafe speed is the most common error in fatal accidents. What other bad practices have you seen on our roadways? Defensive Driving
  • 22. Driving under the influence of anger. Provoked by: • Feeling endangered by someone else’s driving • Resentment at being forced to slow down • Righteous indignation at someone who breaks traffic rules • Anger at someone for their road rage Therapy for road rage: • Take a deep breath and just let it go! Defensive Driving
  • 23. Aggressive Driving Overall, the number of drivers involved in an aggressive driving crash declines as drivers reach 30 years of age The age group with the highest number of aggressive driving crashes was the 16-20 year old group. Defensive Driving
  • 24. Aggressive Drivers What can you do? • Avoid eye contact. • Don’t cut in front of other drivers. • Allow fellow drivers to merge safely. • Don’t use hand gestures. • Never tailgate!!! • Use your horn sparingly. • Give aggressive drivers plenty of space to move on. Defensive Driving
  • 25. Unsafe conditions Poor visibility • Night time driving • Dust storms • Rain storms • Windshield wipers not effective Defensive Driving
  • 26. Unsafe conditions Poor road conditions • Slippery surfaces from weather • Road not properly maintained Defensive Driving
  • 27. Unsafe conditions Improper vehicle maintenance • Inadequate brakes • Worn tread on tires • Hoses, belts • Inadequate acceleration • Headlight(s) out Defensive Driving
  • 28. Hydroplaning • Tires begin to leave the road surface & ride on a film of water. • Can happen at 30 mph. • At 55 mph, the tires may be totally up on the water. • A gust of wind, a change of road level, or a slight turn can create a skid or slide. • To avoid hydroplaning, you must slow down on wet roads. Defensive Driving
  • 29. Accident Procedures • Never leave the scene of an accident. • Report the accident to the police. • Never admit fault. Provide factual information to the emergency response personnel, i.e., Police and EMTs. • Gather all the facts (date, time, witnesses, phone numbers, etc.) • Immediately report all accidents to your chain of command and Safety Department. Defensive Driving
  • 30. Practice, practice, practice • Start when you leave here today • Check your long range scanning. Is it 10 seconds or more? • Check your following distance • Make a conscience effect to constantly check you mirrors • Visually check your blind spots • Some things you will automatically do well. Others you will need to practice • In one week you will notice a difference – In one month you will wonder how you survived before Defensive Driving
  • 31. Driving Tips for All Vehicles • Drive conservatively. • Avoid excessive speed and abrupt maneuvers. • Don’t drive tired. • Don’t drive in bad weather, if possible. • Take rest breaks often (every 2 hours is recommended) • Wear seat belts at all times when the vehicle is in motion. • Drive only during the day, if possible. • Require someone to be awake in the front seat with the driver on long trips. Defensive Driving