THE SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE ADDICTION TO THE DRUGS. PHYSIOLOGY IS A BRANCH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH HEALTHY FUNCTIONING OF DIFFERENT ORGANS AND THE CHANGES THAT THE WHOLE BODY UNDERGOES IN THE COURSE OF ITS ACTIVITIES. HOW A MAN GET ADDICTED TO DRUGS?
INVESTIGATIVE: ANGIOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPY, COLONOSCOPY…. PHYSIOLOGICAL: MENTAL CONDITION, PAIN, HORMONAL IMBALANCE, NUTRIENTS… PATHOLOGICAL: ANTIBIOTICS, ANTICANCER…, ELIXER: DRUG IS ALWAYS A MEDICINE IN APPROPRIATE DOSE.
GENERAL DRUGS THAT ARE BEING ABUSED ARE 1. ALCOHOL, 2. SMOKING NICOTINE, 3. TEA AND COFFEE, 4. NARCOTIC DRUGS LIKE MORPHINE, CODEINE, PETHADINE, FENTANYL…. AND 5. BARBITURATES AND BENZODIAZEPINES. SELF ABUSE: IT’S A STATE IN WHICH A PERSON ENGAGES IN A COMPULSIVE BEHAVIOUR FOR PLEASURE, EVEN WHEN FACED WITH NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES . REPEATED ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS OF DEPENEDENCE MAKES A PERSON ADDICTED TO THAT DRUG; IN CERTAIN CASES A SINGLE DOSE OF NARCOTIC DRUGS MAKES ONE ADDICTED TO THAT DRUG. WHY? DUE TO THE CHANGES IN THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF BRAIN.
ELECTRIC CIRCUIT:CNS: BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD, ANS: INVOLUNTERY FOR HOMEOSTASIS, SNS: FOR VOLUNTERY ACTIONS (SKELETAL MUSCLES).
TRANSMITTERS: TRANSPORTERS, A BRIDGE. NEUROBIOLOGY: HOMEOSTASIS. CHEMICAL BALANCE.
TYPES OF RECEPTORS: ION CHANNELS, G-PROTEIN COUPLED, ENZYME, NUCLEUS. LOCK AND KEY: ALCOHOL ALSO ACTS THROUGH OPIATERECEPTORS AND OTHER INHIBIORY RECEPTORS RESULTING IN INITIAL EXCITATION FOLLOWED BY DEPRESSION.
OPIOD RECEPTORS OF THE BRAIN (ENDORPHINS) FOR PAIN REGULATION.
A SEMINAR ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF DRUG ADDICTIONBY, DAWN V TOMY. (M.PHARM) RVS COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, SULUR COIMBATORE 1
INTRODUCTION TO DRUGSWHO DEFINITION “A drug is anysubstance or product that is used orintended to be used to modify or explorephysiological systems or pathologicalstates for the benefit of the patient. 2
SOME TERMINOLOGIES• Addiction [Substance abuse] = Psychological + Physiological dependence• Psychological = compulsive drug seeking, craving• Physiological = symptoms and signs opposite to drug.• Tolerance. 12
SOME TERMINOLOGIESReinforcement: Tendency of a pleasure- producing drug to lead to repeated self administrationWithdrawal- Drug is suddenly stopped develop a withdrawal syndrome characterized by craving, dysphoria, signs of sympathetic overactivity.Rebound - Drug- suddenly stopped— their symptoms come back in an exaggerated fashion. 13
ADDICTION• Addiction is a state in which a person engages in a compulsive behavior, even when faced with negative consequences.• The behavior is rewarded and reinforced via the reward pathway.• A major feature of addiction is the loss of control in limiting intake of the substance or behavior.• Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease resulting from fundamental changes in the brain. 14
YOUR BRAIN ON DRUGS• All addictive drugs produce their effects by altering the synaptic activity. 15
DOPAMINE IS THE LINK IN ADDICTION• Addictive drugs are biochemically quite different – Activate different neurotransmitter systems – Produce different psychoactive effects – Heroin acts on the opiate system – Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system – Cocaine acts on dopaminergic & noradrenergic systems• All either stimulate dopamine release (heroin, nicotine) or enhance dopamine action (cocaine) in the nucleus accumbens. 17
THE REWARD PATHWAY• The reward pathway is in the limbic system consisting of the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the prefrontal cortex.• The neurons of the VTA contain dopamine which is released into the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex in response to natural or artificial reward stimuli.• Stimulation of the reward pathway produces highly pleasurable sensations, providing positive reinforcement which promotes further drug use. 19
TYPES OF REWARD SYSTEMS• Reward system is of 2 types. 1. Natural reward system. 2. Artificial reward system.• “NATURAL” rewarding stimulus (e.g., food, water, sex, nurture) or “ARTIFICIAL” rewarding stimulus (e.g., drugs), information travels from the VTA to the nucleus accumbens and then up to the prefrontal cortex.• VTA contain dopamine which is released in the nucleus accumbens and in the prefrontal cortex. 20
DRUGS ACT IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE PATHWAY• Heroin & nicotine act on the VTA. – These dopaminergic neurons have both opiate and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.• Cocaine acts on the nucleus accumbens. – The nucleus accumbens is a target of the ascending dopaminergic axons in the forebrain. 22
AlcoholDecreases the actions of theexcitatory NMDA receptorcomplex, i.e., it diminishesexcitation.•Enhances G B i nhi bi t i on. AA•R educes gl ut am e exci t at i on. at•Enhances euphor i c ef f ect s byr el easi ng O at es and piendocannabi noi ds, t her ebym at i ng i t s "hi gh." edi 23
DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTIONSELF ABUSE: REWARD PATHWAY.ADDICTION: CHANGES IN THENEUROBIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN ONREPEATED ADMINISTRATION. 24
DRUG TOLERANCE• When a substance is used repeatedly over time, tolerance may develop.• The brain adjusts its chemistry to offset the effects of the drug and tolerance develops.• As tolerance develops, more of the drug is needed to produce the same effects. 26
SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE• Substance dependence develops when neurons adapt to repeated drug use and only function normally in the presence of the drug.• When dependency develops, the brain has become dependent upon the substance to function.• Without the substance the user experiences withdrawal and intense cravings for the substance. 27
REWARD DEFICIENCY• Prolonged drug use causes the dopamine neurons in the reward pathway to cease functioning.• This state of dopamine deficiency causes the user to experience chronic feelings of anxiety, depression and an inability to just feel good.• The person can only feel normal when under the influence of the drug. 28
ADDICTION VS. DEPENDENCE• It is possible to be dependent on a drug without being addicted. Although, if one is addicted they are most likely also dependent.• For example; A terminal cancer patient being treated with morphine for pain will experience withdrawal if the drug is stopped, but they are not a compulsive user of the drug therefore they are not addicted. 29