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Applying the Multimedia & Contiguity Principle

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What is the Multimedia Principal?
Graphic Types
Graphics Teach Content Types
Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle
Animation Vs. Static Illustrations
What is the Contiguity Principle?

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Applying the Multimedia & Contiguity Principle

  1. 1. Applying the Multimedia & Contiguity Principle EDTECH 513 Dawn Tush
  2. 2. Instructional Objectives <ul><li>The learner will demonstrate types of graphics that illustrate the Contiguity Principle 90% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will provide an example of when an organizational graphic is used to show relationships among ideas, lesson topics, or where the parts are located within a whole structure 90% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will provide and explain one quantitative graphic and one qualitative graphic 90% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will define the principle of continuity 100% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner will explain why cognitive load is an important consideration in lesson planning 100% of the time. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the Multimedia Principal? <ul><li>Use words and graphics rather than words alone </li></ul><ul><li>Words - printed or spoken text </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Presentation - contains both words and graphics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Multimedia Rationale <ul><li>Engage active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in relevant cognitive processing </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally organizing material into a coherent cognitive representation with existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally making connections between the pictorial and verbal representations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Graphic Types <ul><li>Decorative - added for aesthetic appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Representational - illustrate the appearance of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational - show qualitative relationships among content </li></ul><ul><li>Relational - summarize quantitative relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational - illustrate changes in time or over space </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretive - make intangible phenomena visible and concrete </li></ul>
  6. 6. Decorative - added for aesthetic appeal
  7. 7. Representational - illustrate the appearance of an object Bike Riding
  8. 8. Organizational - show qualitative relationships among content Qualit ative -> Qualit y
  9. 9. Relational - summarize quantitative relationships Quantit ative -> Quant ity
  10. 10. Transformational - illustrate changes in time or over space
  11. 11. Interpretive - make intangible phenomena visible and concrete
  12. 12. <ul><li>Learning is facilitated when the graphics and text work together to communicate the instructional message. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Graphics Teach Content Types <ul><li>Clark (2007) has identified five different kinds of content: </li></ul><ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Principal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Facts Description: Unique and isolated information such as specific application screens, forms or product data
  15. 15. Concepts Description: Groups of objects, events or symbols designated by a single name
  16. 16. Process * remember , a process is a step-by-step description of how a system works, including business, scientific and mechanical systems <ul><li>A description of how something works </li></ul>
  17. 17. Procedure Description: A series of steps resulting in completion of a task
  18. 18. Principle Description: Guidelines that result in completion of a task; cause-and-effect relationships <ul><li>DON’T SMOKE </li></ul><ul><li>If you smoke, quit today. </li></ul><ul><li>Call your doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Join a support group. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute smoking for something else enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t risk your life and health. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Psychological Reasons for the Multimedia Principle <ul><li>According to the knowledge construction theory, learning is seen as a process of active sense-making and teaching to foster cognitive processing in the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Using words and graphics is particularly important for learners having low knowledge of the domain. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Animation Vs. Static Illustrations <ul><li>Animations can cost more to develop than static diagrams. </li></ul><ul><li>Use static illustrations unless there is a compelling rationale for animation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is the Contiguity Principle? The contiguity principle is the need to embed printed words near the graphic they describe.
  22. 22. Contiguity Principle 1 Place Printed Words Near corresponding Graphics How To Roll Out Sugar Cookies 1) Place dough on waxed paper 2) Place rolling pin on dough and roll back & forth 3) Place cleaned tuna can on top of rolled dough & press down 4) Use spatula to place on baking pan
  23. 23. Contiguity Principle 2 <ul><li>Synchronize spoken words with corresponding graphics </li></ul>When you have a narrated animation, video or series of still frames, evidence shows that people learn best when the words describing an element or event are spoken - at the same time - that the animation depicts the animation or event on the screen. A. Kindergarten student clicks on a picture of a cow. B. As the student clicks on the cow, the word “cow” is heard.
  24. 24. Today, you learned that… <ul><li>Use words and graphics rather than words alone </li></ul><ul><li>Place printed words near the graphic they describe </li></ul>
  25. 25. Review Look at the graphics below. Which graphic illustrates the Contiguity Principal 1? Explain your answer and give another example. <ul><li>Get a hose </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on the water </li></ul><ul><li>Put shampoo on your dog’s back and rub </li></ul><ul><li>Wash off your dog with the water in the hose </li></ul>1. 2. 3. 4. A. How to Wash Your Dog B. How to Wash Your Dog Get a hose Turn on the water Put shampoo on your dog’s back and rub Wash off your dog with the water in the hose ANSWER: B
  26. 26. Review <ul><li>Assignment: Submit answers to the following questions by creating a web page. </li></ul><ul><li>Due July 3, 2009 . </li></ul><ul><li>Grades will be posted by July 6. Click on your grade for comment sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Provide an example of when an organizational graphic is used to show relationships among ideas, lesson topics, or where the parts are located within a whole structure. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Provide and explain one quantitative graphic and one qualitative graphic. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Define the principle of continuity. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Copy and paste (or click it) this URL into a browser: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm </li></ul><ul><li>What type of graphic did you find? Create a graphic of the same kind on any idea you choose. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Explain why cognitive load is an important consideration in lesson planning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Credits <ul><li>Book Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, R. C., R. E. Mayer (2008). e-Learning and the science of </li></ul><ul><li>instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul><ul><li>Image Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Free Images </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/internet/page5977.cfm?rss </li></ul><ul><li>=1%20- </li></ul><ul><li>http://fotogenika.net/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.freeimages.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Resources </li></ul><ul><li>http://wordle.net </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. slideshare .net </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Fireworks </li></ul><ul><li>Kidspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office </li></ul>

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