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Evidence of Evolution              by Natural SelectionAP Biology                       Dodo bird                         ...
Evidence supporting evolution    Fossil record            transition species     Anatomical record          homologous...
Fossil record      Layers of sedimentary rock contain fossils          new layers cover older ones, creating a          ...
Fossil RecordAP Biology
Fossil record      A record showing us that today’s organisms        descended from ancestral speciesAP Biology
Evolutionary change in horses                              550                              500                           ...
Evolution of birds     Archaeopteryx          lived about 150 mya          links reptiles & birdsSmithsonian Museum, AP...
Land Mammal                       ?                           ?                           e   ?                     re th ...
2006 Fossil Discovery of Early Tetrapod      Tiktaalik            “missing link” from sea to land animalsAP Biology
Anatomical record      Homologous structures            similarities in characteristics resulting             from commo...
Homologous structures    Similar structure    Similar development    Different functions    Evidence of close      evo...
Homologous structures     spines                   leavessucculent leaves                             tendrils            ...
Analogous structures     Separate evolution of structures              similar functions              similar external ...
Convergent evolution    Flight evolved in 3 separate animal groups        evolved similar “solution” to similar “problem...
Convergent evolution    Fish: aquatic vertebrates    Dolphins: aquatic mammals          similar adaptations to         ...
Parallel Evolution     Convergent evolution in common niches            filling similar ecological roles in similar     ...
Parallel types across continents               Niche       Placental Mammals      Australian Marsupials             Burrow...
Vestigial organs     Modern animals may have structures that       serve little or no function            remnants of st...
Vestigial organs     Hind leg bones on whale fossils          Why would whales        have pelvis & leg bones         if ...
Comparative embryology    Similar embryological development in      closely related species            all vertebrate em...
Molecular record    Comparing DNA & protein structure            universal genetic code!              DNA & RNA        ...
Comparative hemoglobin structure              Human Macaque    Dog Bird   Frog            LampreyWhy does comparingamino a...
Building “family” trees     Closely related species (branches) share same line of     descent until their divergence from ...
Artificial selection     Artificial breeding can use variations in        populations to create vastly different        “...
Natural selection in action      Insecticide &        drug resistance          insecticide didn’t           kill all ind...
"Nothing in biology             makes sense except in             the light of evolution."                     -- Theodosi...
Evolution is "so overwhelmingly       established that it has become       irrational to call it a theory."               ...
Don’t be a Dodo…             Ask Questions!!AP Biology                      2007-2008
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04 ch22evolutionevidence2009

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04 ch22evolutionevidence2009

  1. 1. Evidence of Evolution by Natural SelectionAP Biology Dodo bird 2007-2008
  2. 2. Evidence supporting evolution  Fossil record  transition species  Anatomical record  homologous & vestigial structures  embryology & development  Molecular record  protein & DNA sequence  Artificial selection  human-caused evolutionAP Biology
  3. 3. Fossil record  Layers of sedimentary rock contain fossils  new layers cover older ones, creating a record over time  fossils within layers show that a succession of organisms have populated Earth throughout a long period of timeAP Biology
  4. 4. Fossil RecordAP Biology
  5. 5. Fossil record  A record showing us that today’s organisms descended from ancestral speciesAP Biology
  6. 6. Evolutionary change in horses 550 500 450 Body size (kg) Equus 400 350 300 250 Merychippus 200 150 Mesohippus Hyracotherium 100 50 Nannippus 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0AP Biology Millions of years ago
  7. 7. Evolution of birds  Archaeopteryx  lived about 150 mya  links reptiles & birdsSmithsonian Museum, AP BiologyWashington, DC
  8. 8. Land Mammal ? ? e ? re th re a nal Whe sitio ? tran ils? fossAP Biology
  9. 9. 2006 Fossil Discovery of Early Tetrapod  Tiktaalik  “missing link” from sea to land animalsAP Biology
  10. 10. Anatomical record  Homologous structures  similarities in characteristics resulting from common ancestryAP Biology
  11. 11. Homologous structures  Similar structure  Similar development  Different functions  Evidence of close evolutionary relationship  recent common ancestorAP Biology
  12. 12. Homologous structures spines leavessucculent leaves tendrils needles AP Biologycolored leaves
  13. 13. Analogous structures  Separate evolution of structures  similar functions  similar external form  different internal structure & development  different origin  no evolutionary relationship Don’t be fooled by their looks! Solving a similar problem with a similar solutionAP Biology
  14. 14. Convergent evolution  Flight evolved in 3 separate animal groups  evolved similar “solution” to similar “problems”  analogous structures Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor?AP Biology
  15. 15. Convergent evolution  Fish: aquatic vertebrates  Dolphins: aquatic mammals  similar adaptations to life in the sea  not closely related Those fins & tails & sleek bodies are analogous structures!AP Biology
  16. 16. Parallel Evolution  Convergent evolution in common niches  filling similar ecological roles in similar environments, so similar adaptations were selected  but are not closely relatedmarsupialmammals placental mammalsAP Biology
  17. 17. Parallel types across continents Niche Placental Mammals Australian Marsupials Burrower Marsupial mole Mole Anteater Anteater Numbat Nocturnal Marsupial mouse insectivore Mouse Climber Spotted cuscus Lemur Glider Sugar glider Flying squirrel Stalking predator Ocelot Tasmanian cat Chasing predatorAP Biology Wolf Tasmanian “wolf”
  18. 18. Vestigial organs  Modern animals may have structures that serve little or no function  remnants of structures that were functional in ancestral species  deleterious mutations accumulate in genes for non-critical structures without reducing fitness  snakes & whales — remains of pelvis & leg bones of walking ancestors  eyes on blind cave fish  human tail bone This is not LaMarck’s lossAP Biology from “disuse”!
  19. 19. Vestigial organs  Hind leg bones on whale fossils Why would whales have pelvis & leg bones if they were always sea creatures?AP Biology
  20. 20. Comparative embryology  Similar embryological development in closely related species  all vertebrate embryos have similar structures at different stages of development  gill pouch in fish, frog, snake, birds, human, etc.AP Biology
  21. 21. Molecular record  Comparing DNA & protein structure  universal genetic code!  DNA & RNA Why compare these genes?  compare common genes  cytochrome C (respiration)  hemoglobin (gas exchange) Human/kangaroo 100 Human/ cowClosely related species have Dog/ cow Nucleotide substitutions 75 Rabbit/sequences that are more similar rodent Human/rodent 50 Horse/ Llama/than distantly related species donkey cow Horse/cow Sheep/ DNA & proteins are a molecular DNA & proteins molecular 25 goat Pig/ cow record of evolutionary relationships record evolutionary relationships Goat/cow 0 0 25 50 75 100 125AP Biology Millions of years ago
  22. 22. Comparative hemoglobin structure Human Macaque Dog Bird Frog LampreyWhy does comparingamino acid sequencemeasure evolutionary relationships? 8 32 45 67 125 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Number of amino acid differences betweenAP Biology hemoglobin (146 aa) of vertebrate species and that of humans
  23. 23. Building “family” trees Closely related species (branches) share same line of descent until their divergence from a common ancestorAP Biology
  24. 24. Artificial selection  Artificial breeding can use variations in populations to create vastly different “breeds” & “varieties” “descendants” of wild mustardAP Biology “descendants” of the wolf
  25. 25. Natural selection in action  Insecticide & drug resistance  insecticide didn’t kill all individuals  resistant survivors reproduce  resistance is inherited  insecticide becomes less & less effectiveAP Biology
  26. 26. "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." -- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973 Geneticist, Columbia University (1900-1975)AP Biology 2007-2008
  27. 27. Evolution is "so overwhelmingly established that it has become irrational to call it a theory." -- Ernst Mayr What Evolution Is 2001 Professor Emeritus, Evolutionary Biology Harvard University (1904-2005)AP Biology 2007-2008
  28. 28. Don’t be a Dodo… Ask Questions!!AP Biology 2007-2008

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