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  1. 5.8 Improved Grain Storage Case from DI Khan, Pakistan
  2. Statement: Improved storage is important: storage losses can be as high as 6-20% Main reasons: -Insects/ pests -Seeds stored before complete drying -Moisture storage conditions
  3. Results of survey in DI Khan  Almost all the stores affected by varying degree of infestation by insects like Trogoderma sp, Sitotroga sp., Tribolium sp. and Zoophiles specie  Damages were 7 % at an average, where as in 10 % of the locality the damages were recorded from 10 to 20 %.  At an average there were 5 % (by weight) foreign materials i.e. weed seeds, clods and straw.  90% of the farmers used to store grain in rooms meant for multipurpose (living room, straw store, house hold store, animal room): all these rooms highly humid - making the management process difficult.  Mixed type of old receptacles i.e. polythene bags, gunny bags, Binda (large polythene bag), bolarh (earthen bin), etc are using for years without disinfesting.  Receptacles were not closed tightly to resist the insect access to grains.  No use of pesticides due to high cost, non-availability and difficulty in application.
  4. Some traditional practices reduce storage loss: -use of brumba (wild melon) repells pests -storage in straw (reduces humidity)
  5. Experiments in DI Khan  Use of small polythene bag (50 kg capacity) for storage does not reduce storage loss, becuae of thin coat.  Binda (large size bags with capacity of 2000 kg) placed on bricks or traditional plate form of straw proved significantly better - reducing the losses to 0.25 %.  Fumigation of grains in the same Binda (once in July) gave best results.  Binda cost (Rs 550, USD 10) is obstacle however  IF properly managed, proper resealing after examining or drawing of grains each time can also reduce loss to almost nil.
  6. Innovations 1. Improved earthen storage with standard length, width and height of the structure at 5, 3 and 4 feet, respectively, with the capacity of accommodating 1200 kg of grains 2. In case of Binda: Add the use of plastic sheet to seal the mouth of Binda
  7. Results of innovations  Grain losses reduced to 0.3%  Receptacles (both earthen structure and Binda) properly sealed and managed survived the incidence of insects without fumigation Infested grains fumigated and properly resealed survived the re-infestation of insects
  8. Discussion: scope for improvement in grain storage in Ethiopia?
  9. Based on work of VEER/ PLI, DI Khan, Pakistan