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Biochar a boon

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Biochar a boon

  1. 1. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. EFFECT OF BIOCHAR ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE Ankur Scientific, Baroda, India Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. What is Biochar? Biochar is the carbon rich product when biomass is heated with little or no available oxygen. It is produced by thermal decomposition of organic material under limited supply of oxygen and at relatively llow t d t l ti l temperatures. t In short, Biochar is a charcoal like solid that can be generated from most types of organic matter. 1
  2. 2. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. How is Biochar generated? Gasification is one of the dominant thermal decomposition processes producing gas along with biochar. biochar. Gasification is the process of converting solid fuels to gaseous fuel. fuel. The process involves drying pyrolysis drying, pyrolysis, combustion with air, reduction into combustible gases, (carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, some higher hydrocarbons) and inerts, inerts, (carbon dioxide and nitrogen). nitrogen). Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. The reactions of Gasification process 2
  3. 3. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Properties of Biochar from Gasifiers The yield of Biochar as by-product could be from 6% to 35%. Has 7-10% ash and 70-75% fixed carbon. Calorific value ranges from 5500 6500 5500-6500 kcal/kg. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Potential impact of Biochar on soils Enhances the health of the soil. Increases the pH of acidic soils (since biochar is typically alkaline). Increases water & nutrient retention. Biochar carbon is chemically altered during Gasification & thus are resistant to attack by micro-organisms micro-organisms. Biochar carbon can remain stabilized for long periods of time (100 to 1000 years). Is therefore an important way of storing carbon that has been scavenged from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. 3
  4. 4. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Potential impact of Biochar on soils Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Systematic study done by ‘Ankur’ on application of gasifier biochar on crop response. Ankur conducted systematic studies on application of gasifier biochar on crop response, mainly wheat. Wheat is an important food grain providing nourishment to nearly 35% people of the world. It contributes to about 60% of the daily protein requirement and more calories to the world diet than any other food crop. The field experiment was conducted under irrigated condition during rabi, 2011-12 in the R&D fields of ‘Ankur’. Biochar produced from WBG 400 gasifier was analyzed for its physico-chemical and nutritional properties and the results are presented in the following slides. 4
  5. 5. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Biochar Biochar produced from ‘Ankur’ Gasifier was analyzed & the values are as below: Sr. Sr No Parameter Values 1 Moisture, % 4.72 2 Ash, % of dry wt 19.26 3 Volatile, % of dry wt 3.68 4 Fixed carbon, % of dry wt 77.06 5 Calorific Value kcal/kg dry wt Value, 6609 6 Nitrogen as N, % of dry wt 0.46 7 Phosphorus as P2O5, % of dry wt 2.70 8 Potassium as K2O, % of dry wt 3.90 Biochar is rich in carbon & has higher values of P2O5 and K2O compared to Farm Yard Manure (FYM). Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Chemical Properties of the Soil in Experimental Site Sr. No Parameter Values 1 Soil pH (1:2 soil: water suspension) 7.42 2 Electrical conductivity (dS m-1) 0.44 3 Organic carbon (OC % ) 0.38 4 Available phosphorus (kg P2O5 ha-1) 17.50 5 Available potassium (kg K2O ha-1) 212.50 5
  6. 6. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Treatments given The following three treatments were given T1 (Control): No fertilizer was used. T2 (Biochar+ Urea): 50 kg ha-1 P2O5 through biochar and 3 splits of 128 kg ha-1 N through urea ; 1/3 as basal + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at milking. T3 (DAP+ U ) 50 k h -1 P2O5 th Urea): kg ha 1 through DAP and 3 splits of 128 kg h d lit f k -1 N through urea; 1/3 as basal + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at milking. ha Design, layout and Plot size: The field experiment was laid down in simple plot design with three treatments and replicated three times. The plot size was 3m x 5m = 15 m2 Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Fertilizer application No fertilizer was applied in T1. pp In T2, no phosphorus was applied. Instead 2 tons of biochar ha-1 was applied by uniformly spreading and mixing with soil during the preparation of land and 128 N kg ha-1 in the form of urea was applied as per treatment. In T3, the recommended dose of 128:50 NP kg ha-1 was applied in the form of urea and diammonium phosphate. Phosphorus was applied on the day of sowing while nitrogen was applied as per treatment. 6
  7. 7. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Overview of Experimental Plots after 60 Days The fertilizer application was followed by seeds sowing, irrigation and after care like iinterculturing, controlling weeds iin b t t lt i t lli d between th rows etc. and th result was as f ll the t d the lt follows: Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. The Results - Plant Height at Different Growth Stages Plant height in cm Treatment After 30 days After 45 days After 60 days At harvest T1 (control) 28.2 43.0 55.9 56.3 T2 (Biochar+Urea) 35.4 53.8 65.9 67.4 T3 (DAP+Urea) 30.1 44.2 64.1 64.4 7
  8. 8. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. The Results - Ear Length at Different Growth Stages Ear length in cm Treatment After 60 days At harvest T1 (Control) 5.8 6.0 T2 (Biochar+Urea) 8.8 9.0 T3 ( DAP+Urea) 7.1 7.5 Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. The Results - 1000 Grain Weight and Grains Per Ear Head Treatment Grains per ear head 1000-grain weight (g) T1 (control) 44.47 50.332 T2 (Biochar+Urea) 48.51 54.301 T3 ( DAP+Urea) 46.83 52.951 8
  9. 9. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. The Results - Grain Yield, Straw Yield and Harvest Index Yield and Attributes Treatment T2 (Biochar+Urea) T3 ( DAP+Urea) Straw yield Total yield Harvest (kg ha-1) T1 (control) Grain yield (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Index 3030 5266 8296 0.365 0 365 7112 10308 17420 0.408 6014 9441 15455 0.389 Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Conclusions of the experimentation Combined biochar and fertilizer application has increased the grain yield as well as straw yield. All the growth parameters of wheat crop were better when biochar and N fertilizer were applied in combination replacing P fertilizer. Application of biochar can save P fertilizer. Soil productivity as indicated by the yield and attributes increases with use of biochar. 9
  10. 10. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Trials with Maize….and other crops.. Similar results have been obtained with Maize Maize. The results are likely to be generally applicable to almost all crops with possibly greater impact on Pulses. Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Thank You (Complete details of Ankur’s biochar experiment with process and results can be made available on request). 10

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