4. fight for rivers and ironclads

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4. fight for rivers and ironclads

  1. 1. Fight for the Rivers February, 1862
  2. 2. Union strategy involved the control of the Mississippi River • Fort Henry and Fort Donelson controlled the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers • Union commanders wanted to seize the forts
  3. 3. February 2nd, 1862 • Union ironclad gunboats began to bombard Fort Henry from the river • General Ulysses S Grant arrived with 17,000 men, having steamed up the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers
  4. 4. The fort commander decided not to waste his 3,000 men • He sent most of them to help Fort Donelson, 12 miles away • The Confederates surrendered Fort Henry
  5. 5. Grant set out for Fort Donelson on Feb. 12th • Union gunboats opened fire on the 14th, but the fort’s cannons caused great damage • Grant got into position and the Confederates tried a counterattack to break Union lines
  6. 6. 15,000 Confederate troops were trapped and surrendered • The Union seized Fort Donelson • The Tennessee and Ohio Rivers were in Union hands, and the Union had won its first victories
  7. 7. Clash of the Ironclads March 8-9, 1862 armored ships known as ironclads clashed at Hampton Roads, off Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. Although a minor battle it changed the face of naval warfare forever
  8. 8. The ironclads had been developed by the Confederacy • One of the few examples where Southern technology was more advanced than that of the north • The South was seeking ways to break the Union naval blockade
  9. 9. Confederates converted a partly destroyed Union ship called the Merrimack • Engineers covered the hull with 4-inch thick iron plating • They also added a ram to the bow • Named the new ship CSS Virginia
  10. 10. The CSS Virginia managed to sink two large Union warships, and damage another in just a few hours on March 8, 1862 • The next morning the Union sent it’s own battleship, the USS Monitior to engage it • Although smaller, it was quicker and could outmaneuver the other vessel
  11. 11. The two ships pounded each other for four hours • The armor was so effective neither ship was badly damaged • This battle changed naval warfare as each side rushed to build ironclads as quickly as possible

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