Handling large work (time, workload, etc.)Developing Multiple perspectives Specializing & improvingeffectiveness (different skills, knowledge, and intelligence)Overcoming individual vs. interests Identifying your strength and weaknessesReceiving knowledge & Developing skills for better work in a teamSocializing opportunity
- Team meetings - Day, time, and place - Method of communication (e.g., e-mail, cell phone, wired phone, Blackboard Discussion Board, face-to-face, in a certain class) in order to inform each other of team meetings, announcement, updates, reminders, problems- Decision-making policy (by consensus? by majority vote?)- Meeting agendas (Who will set each agenda? When? How will team members be notified/reminded? Who will be responsible for the team following the agenda during a team meeting? What will be done to keep the team on track during a meeting?)- Method of record keeping (Who will be responsible for recording & disseminating minutes? How & when will the minutes be disseminated? Where will all agendas & minutes be kept?)
“ During the forming stage, teams tend to communicate in indirect polite ways rather than more directly. “““• Individuals are not clear on what they’re supposed to do. • The mission isn’t owned by the group. • Wondering where we’re going. • No trust yet. • High learning. • No group history; unfamiliar with group members. • Norms of the team are not established.• People check one another out. • People are not committed to the team.”
“Expressing differences of ideas, feelings, and opinions”“The storming stage, characterized by conflict, can often be productive, but may consume excessive amounts of time and energy. In this stage it is important to listen well for differing expectations.” (G-step workshop)“0. Roles and responsibilities are articulated 1. Agendas are displayed, 2. Problems solving doesn’t work well, 3. People want to modify theteam’s mission. 4. Trying new ideas.5. Splinter groups form. 6. People set boundaries. 7. Anxiety abounds. 8. People push for position andpower. 9. Competition is high. 10. Cliques drive the team. 11. Little team spirit. 12. Lots of personal attacks. 13. Level of participation bymembers is at its highest (for some) and its lowestAction Steps: “Forming” to “Storming”“• Set a mission. • Set goals. • Establish roles. • Recognize need to move out of “forming” stage. • Leader must be directive. • Figure ways to build trust. • Define a reward structure. • Take risks. • Bring group together periodically to work on common tasks. • Assert power. • Decide once and for all to be on theteam.”
“Next, during the norming stage, teams formulate roles and standards, increasing trust and communication. This norming stage is characterized by agreement on procedures, reduction in role ambiguity, and increased “we-ness” or unity. These developments generally are precursors to the performing stage.”“Success occurs. • Team has all the resources for doing the job. • Appreciation and trust build. • Purpose is well defined. • Feedback is high, well received, and objective. • Team confidence is high. • Leader reinforces team behavior. • Members self-reinforce team norms. • Hidden agendas become open. • Team is creative. • More individual motivation. • Team gains commitment from all members on direction and goals.”Action Steps: “Storming” to “Norming”“• Team leader should actively support and reinforce team behavior, facilitate the group for wins, create positive environment. • Leader must ask for and expect results.• Recognize, publicize team wins. • Agree on individuals’ roles and responsibilities. • Buy into objectives and activities. • Listen to each other. • Set and take team time together. • Everyone works actively to set a supportive environment. • Have the vision: “We can succeed!” • Request and accept feedback.• Build trust by honoring commitments.”
“performing stage, during which teams achieve their goals, are highly task oriented, and focus on performance and production.““• Tea members feel very motivated. • Individuals defer to team needs. • No surprises. • Little waste. Very efficient team operations. • Team members have objective outlook. • Individuals take pleasure in the success of the team – big wins. • “We” versus “I” orientation. • High pride in the team. • High openness and support. • High empathy. • High trust in everyone. • Superior team performance. • OK to risk confrontation.”Action Steps: “Norming” to “Performing”• Maintain traditions.• Praise and flatter each other. • Self-evaluate without a fuss. • Share leadership role in team based on who does what the best. • Share rewards and successes. • Communicate all the time. • Share responsibility. • Delegate freely within the team. • Commit time to the team. • Keep raising the bar – new, higher goals. • Be selective of new team members; train to maintain the tea m spirit.
When the task has been completed, the team adjourns.
Darsavelidze d. presentation for a practicum _working in a small team
Working in a Small Group/TeamDavit DarsavelidzeUniversity of North TexasPADM 5030Human ResourcesInstructor: Dr. Abraham Benavides05/01/2013Source: http://www.trychin.com/bookcovers/rules.gifPrepared for the G*STEP Practicum
Advantages Disadvantages Team Norms and Contract Tuckman’s Model of team development ConclusionOutline
Why do we usually hate or just simply donot like a team work?Team WorkSource: http://img.scoop.it/J6s0yrx4YMW2p_YLrLBKJDl72eJkfbmt4t8yenImKBVaiQDB_Rd1H6kmuBWtceBJ
Disadvantages:• Distrust and conflict, fear for a failure• Sacrifice of Individual interest for a team interest• Need of Facilitation and leadership skills• Necessity of sharing responsibilities• Difficult team membersSource: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-rwqnoL2FcEo/T97Wf9lYSII/AAAAAAAAAGk/9EMHxNFAbfE/s1600/teamwork_teamwork_A.jpg
Why do we usually involve ourselvesin a team work?Source: http://foreverlyn.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/teamwork.jpg
Source: http://calstate.fullerton.edu/multimedia/2011su/Green-Campus-group-622.jpgAdvantages:Source: http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/benefits.html• Productivity - “More hands make for lighter work.”• Creativity - “Two heads are better than one.”• Motivation - “The more the merrier.”IncreasedDeveloping skills of working in groupsIncreasingly important in theprofessional practice(Caruso & Woolley, 2008)
If there is no way but working in a group,How to cope with it better?What should we know?Source: http://blogs.itap.purdue.edu/learning/files/2011/05/GroupOfStudents-300x210.jpg
How to cope with a team work?We should answer the Questions:1. What is a team?2. What is a team contract?3. What are the stages of a team development?
What is a team?"A team is a small number of people with complementaryskills who are committed to a commonpurpose, performance goals, and approach for which theyare mutually accountable."(Katzenbach & Smith, 1993)It is an institutional unit, with• common mission/purpose/goals• structure (leader, facilitator, member, etc.)• tasks/ project(s)• limited resources (human, financial, materials, time, etc.)• permanent or temporary lifecycle• Etc.
What are team work norms & a contract?Source: (team contract example, provided at G-step workshop)• Creating team procedures• Agreeing on expectations• Specifying the consequences if someone fails to followthe procedures/expectations• Defining rules for review of the contractTeam contract examples:http://www.pmtraining.com.tw/member_pmp/Team%20Contract%202.0.pdfhttp://www.seas.gwu.edu/~bhagiweb/cs1/teamwork.html
Team development stages?Source: http://www.pmhut.com/the-five-stages-of-project-team-developmentTuckman’s model(1965, 1977)AdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingVIVIIIIII
a forming stage – Team developmentSource: http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdfAdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingVIVIIIIII• Establishing base level expectations (team contract)• Identifying similarities and differences• Agreeing on common goals• Making initial contact and bonding• Developing trust among team membersSource: http://www.mindtools.com/media/HomePage/forming225x150.jpg
A storming stage – Team developmentSource: http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdfAdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingVIVIIIIII• Sensing power and control issues• Becoming skillful in communication• Spotting out resources• Engaging in conflict Reacting to leadership• Members independent or counter dependentSource: http://www.team-building-techniques.com/images/iStock_000009056432XSmallConflictX.jpg
A norming stage – Team developmentSource: http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdfAdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingVIVIIIIII• Coming to an agreement on roles and processesfor problem-solving• Making decisions through the process ofnegotiation and consensus buildingSource: https://www.cpp.com/images1/hero/brand_process_hero_apply.jpg
A performing stage – Team developmentSource: http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdfAdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingVIVIIIIII• Achieving effective as well as satisfying results• Finding solutions collaboratively• Caring about each other• Establishing a unique identity• Developing interdependency in a team workSource: http://www.sunsail.com.au/files/holiday-options/Corporate/Team%20Building/team-building-overview.jpg
Source: http://www.yostella.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/istock_000008506568xsmall.jpgAn adjourning stage – Team developmentSource: http://www.pmhut.com/the-five-stages-of-project-team-developmentVIVIIIIII• Celebrating success• Reviewing lessons learned• Identifying best practices for using in the futureAdjourningFormingStormingNormingPerformingSource: http://www.fennassociates.com/img/toast.jpg
ConclusionSuccess in a team work depends on: Pull of skills, knowledge, and intelligence of members High commitment of group members Clear understanding of a team interest Proper need assessment, conflict management, andsocial contract Fair division of responsibilities and benefitsSource: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hWc20fnsIFo/TcvaEyY0xYI/AAAAAAAAAqQ/sFU1GbhiMf8/s1600/love_and_hate_by_baro24.jpg
Caruso, H.M., & Wooley, A.W. (2008). Harnessing the power of emergentinterdependence to promote diverse team collaboration. Diversity andGroups. 11: 245-266.Katzenbach, J.R. & Smith, D.K. (1993). The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-performance Organization. Boston: Harvard Business School.Tuckman, B (1965). "Developmental sequence in small groups". PsychologicalBulletin, 63 (6): 384–99. DOI:10.1037/h0022100Tuckman’s Team Development Model. Retrieved on march 28, 2013, from:http://salvos.org.au/scribe/sites/2020/files/Resources/Transitions/HANDOUT_-_Tuckmans_Team_Development_Model.pdfReferences: