Spanish History• Absorbed Roman culture: evident inlanguage today• Spanish Inquisition 1483: Ferdinandand Isabella attempt to force“ideological conformity• Powerful world empire of the 16thand 17th centuries: “Proud,individualistic, envious, passionate,disinclined to follow their superiors”
Immigration/Emigration-During the Spanish Inquisition, emigration was forced on those who resistedconversion to Roman Catholicism.-In 1936-1939, the Spanish Civil War caused much in-country migration as well asemigration.-In the early 20th century, political and social upheaval led to poor living situations andjob shortages, resulting in large-scale emigration as well as in-country migration. >In countryside areas, oligarchic land rule and underproduction caused many Spaniards to emigrate to Latin America. >Between 1950 and 1981, 5 million Spanish migrant workers sought work in France and West Germany due to rural Spain’s poverty. >In the 1960’s and 1970’s, migrants looking for jobs and better living standards flooded into Western Europe and North America.-In the late 1970’s, many Spaniards from abroad returned from abroad as democracyreturned to Spain and economic opportunities for Spaniards declined in Europe.
• Between 1951 and 1981, more than 5 million Spaniards left poor Spain.• The flow of migrant work reached its peak between 1969 and 1973 because 40% of the 25- year total migrated.• In response to labor shortages, migrant workers moved to better economies between 1960 and 1985: >1.3 to Western European countries >500,000 to Switzerland >400,000 to West Germany >277,000 to France
History• Tradition dates back to the 14th century• Attempted restrictions• Event is included in Festival of San Fermin (1591)• 1865-Plaza del Castillo Bullring• Ernest Hemingway and the running of the bulls• Fatalities
Timeline• July 6th to July 14th, yearly• Opening day, July 6th, begins at noon with the chupinazo, opening ceremony• Continues at 11pm with fireworks and celebration• July 7th through 14th daily events occur• Beginning at 8am with the release of the bull• 6:30pm the bullfights• 11pm more partying and celebration
Running Rules • Must be 18 years old • Do not aggravate the bulls, • Run with the bulls • No influence of alcohol • Only can start at the beginning, no entering in the middle. • No flash photography (or running with a camera). • Proper attire required
San Fermin and the Running of the Bulls• The most well known bull run (encierro) is in Pamplona at the festival of San Fermin.• The festival begin sometime in the 14th century, and the running of the bulls was added in 1591.• The current route has been used since 1852.• The bulls are run at 8 am all 7 days of San Fermin, but the biggest run is on July 7 each year.• The bull run is now the principle attraction for the festival.
Survival of the Running of the Bulls • The Running of the Bulls will likely survive. • The challenge will be the safety of the event. – This is especially true as the run becomes increasingly crowded with inexperienced runners. • More tourists are participating, but few significant changes have been made in recent years, and it seems many changes will be made anytime soon.
Culture• The running of the bulls has no relation to the festivals it occurs with. The bullfighting festival, livestock fair, and the San Fermín festival have been all combined in July for better weather and more convenient timing.• Original festival celebrates Pamplona’s son that turned saint, San Fermín. San Fermín was inspired by Christianity and travelled to France to learn and become a bishop. His determination to spread the word of Christianity caused some turbulence. He refused to stop his purpose and was beheaded. The festival of San Fermín was created in his honor.• As time has continued the San Fermín festival has become more about the running of the bulls than the religious aspect. The running of the bulls was a by-product of the moving the bulls to the fighting ring. The herding of bulls collected young boys in need of showing their fearlessness to women, as time progressed, the run has become a tourist attraction.
Running of the Bulls- Outsiders • -Purpose of Running of the Bulls for Spain: • Long-standing tradition (14th century) • Inspires national pride, as it allows many Spaniards to gather and celebrate their country and its traditions • -Purpose of Running of the Bulls for outsiders: • Ernest Hemingway / popularized image of this event • Opportunity to participate in an unusual festival with high stakes
Mainstream or Production?• Hemingway’s novel brings attention to the Running of the Bulls• Majority of the runners remain ethnic Spaniards contrary to belief that there are many outsiders involved• Animal rights advocates have fought to change the bullfighting and bull runs
PETA• Spains national television network, RTVE, has announced that it is refusing to air bullfights• 72 percent of Spaniards are against it, Catalonia has banned it, and Ecuadoran president Rafael Correa recently called it a "spectacle of violence“ http://www.peta.org/b/thepetafiles/archive/2011/01/10/bullfighting-booted-from-the-airwaves.aspx
Defining Authenticity - Pros• The Running of the Bulls is OLD – since 14th century, in festival since 1591• This event evolved from the Spanish practice of driving the bulls to bullfights• The event began with Spanish citizens, not outsiders• Running in front of the bulls has remained the norm since the 16th century
Defining Authenticity - Cons• Ernest Hemingway’s contribution to popularity among outsiders, tourists• Added to the festival for convenience, it was never originally part of this celebration• There is a large draw for tourism, selling balconies to view the event – Americanized• Many sources on the event are done in English
Defining Authenticity• Stuart Hall• “Far from being grounded in a mere ‘recovery’ of the past……identities are the names we give to the different ways we are positioned by, and position ourselves within, the narratives of the past” (Cheng, 43)• (Emphasizes that the real Spain should keep in mind history, but incorporate new aspects of culture/tradition).