1862 1864 1866Homestead Act- Sand Creek Buffalo Soldiers-Law that offered Massacre- When Nickname given160 acres of land returning to their to Africanto any citizen or reservation, the Americanintended citizen. Cheyenne were soldiers by theAround 600,000 attacked and Native Americanstook up the offer. over 150 tribes they inhabitants were fought. killed.
1867 1868 1869Oliver Kelley- Tammany Hall- GeorgeStarted the New York City’s Westinghouse- AnPatrons of powerful AmericanHusbandry, an Democratic entrepreneur andorganization for political machine, engineer whofarmers. headed by Boss invented the railway Tweed air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry.
1869 1870s 1870sTranscontinental Wild Bill Hickok- Grange- NameRailroad- A After serving as a given to thenetwork of scout and spy in the Patrons ofrailroads the Civil War, he Husbandry. became a marshalcrosses a and was in the Helped familiescontinental mass. acting business for a and fought theOpened trade brief period of time. railroads, gaveacross the Became a symbol rise to othercountry. for the West. organizations.
1870s 1870s 1871Kickback- Illegal Fredrick Law Tweed Ring- Apayments given Olmsted- Landscape group of corruptto the political architect who politicians whomachines and spearheaded the defrauded New movement forindividual planned urban York City, it waspoliticians. parks. In the 1870s led by Boss he planned the Tweed. landscaping for D.C. and St. Louis.
1872 1873 1876Mail-Order Patronage- The Battle of LittleCatalog- Started giving of Bighorn- (Custer’sin 1872 by Ward government jobs Last Stand) Theand grew from a to people who Native Americanssingle sheet to a had helped a outflanked andbooklet filled with candidate get crushed Custer’sorders. elected. force, within an hour all of the Seventh Calvary was killed.
1876 1876 1876George Sitting Bull- Thomas AlvaArmstrong Leader of the Edison- BecomeCuster- Colonel Hunkpapa Sioux a pioneer on thein the army who who defeated new industrialattacked and Custer. Led his frontier when hethen was crushed people by the established theby the Native strength of his world’s firstAmericans and character and researchLittle Bighorn. purpose. laboratory.
1876 1876 1876Alexander Telephone- Opened Socialism- AnGraham- Invented the way for a economic andthe telephone with worldwide political systemThomas Watson. communication based on network. Created new governmentHis invention jobs for women, control ofopened the way for increased business, business anda worldwide and communication property andcommunication speed along with the equal distributionnetwork. typewriter. of wealth.
1877 1877 1877Chief Joseph- Nez Perce- VanderbiltLeader of the Indian tribe that Family- A familyWallowa band ofNez Perce during was forced off of railroad nobilitya difficult time. He their lands in who becamelooked for Wallowa County, socially andpeaceful ways to Oregon. Fought economicallyresist the removal back but prominent duringof his tribe, and eventually the first half ofshowed admirableleadership. surrendered. the nineteenth- century.
1879 1870s-1880s 1800sDumbbell Graft- The illegal Ragtime- A blendTenements- Law use of political of African-that required that influence for Americanevery inhabitable personal gain. spiritualist androom have a Europeanwindow opening musical forms.to plain air, led Originated in thesanitation saloons of theproblems. South.
1880s 1880s 1880sMonopoly- When John D. Angel Island-a firm has Rockefeller- Place where Asiancomplete control Established the immigrants arrivedover its industry’s Standard Oil at on the Westproduction, Company and Coast for gainingwages, and used trusts to admission,prices. gain total control immigrants over the oil endured harsh industry. questioning.
1880s 1881 1882Political Machine- Booker T. Trust- AgreementsAn organized Washington- where participantsgroup that Prominent African turned their stockcontrolled the American who over to trustees. Inactivities of a believed that return, thepolitical party in a racism would end companies werecity. Offered once blacks entitled toservices to voters acquired useful dividends onand business in labor skills and profits earned byexchange for proved their trusts.support. economic value.
1883 1884 1886Joseph Pulitzer- Mugwumps- A SamuelA Hungarian group of Gompers- Ledimmigrant who Republican the Cigar Makers’had bought the activists who InternationalNew York World supported Union to join within 1883, Democratic other craftpioneered candidate Grover unions.popular Cleveland in theinnovations. presidential election.
1886 1886 1887Haymarket Affair- Collective Dawes Act- Law that Bargaining- aimed to “Americanize”While people the Native Americans.were protesting Negotiation between The act broke theagainst police representatives of reservation and then the labor and government was goingbrutality someone management, to to sell the lands and givethrew a bomb reach written the money they receivedinto the police agreements on back to the Indians. However, this did notline, then causing wages, hours, and happen, settler occupiedviolence to erupt. working conditions. the land and the Indians received no money.
1888 1888 1889Jacob Riis- George Eastman- Jane Adams-Known for using Developed a One of the mosthis photographic series of more influentialand journalist convenient members of thetalents to help alternatives to the Settlement housethe impervished heavy glass plates movement.in New York City. previously used. He introduced the Kodak camera.
1890s 1890s 1890sSweat Shops- Urbanization- Robber Barons-Term for any Growth of cities Term that wasworking do to typically appliedenvironment immigration, to businessmenconsidered to be mostly in the who were viewedunacceptably regions of the as having useddifficult or Northeast and questionabledangerous. Midwest. practices to amass their wealth.
1890 1890 1890Wounded Knee- Sherman SettlementAfter rounding up Antitrust Act- House-350 Sioux thesoldiers demanded Made it illegal to Communitythat the Native form a trust that centers in slumAmericans give up interfered with neighborhoodsall of their free trade that providedweapons. A shot between states or assistance towas fiered then the with other people in thesoldiers opened upwith cannon fire countries. area, especiallykilling around 300. immigrants.
1890 1890 1892Orville and Wilbur Jim Crow Laws- Omaha Platform-Wright- Started with The party programprinting newspapers Laws that adopted at thebut then their interest separated white convention of thewas drawn to bicycles and black people Populist Party.and then ultimately to Demanded thatairplanes. They first in public and in reforms to lift theexperimented with private facilities. burden of dept formgliders at Kitty Hawk Put segregation farmers andin 1900. They later, workers and givethey achieved into effect in the people a greaterpowered flight in schools, voice in their1903. hospitals, etc. government.
1892 1892 1892Scab- Also Ellis Island- Place Ida B. Wells-known as where immigrants Became an editor of a local paperstrikebreakers, had to pass after moving tohired workers for through Memphis. Afterreplacement of inspection to be March 9, 1892,workers that are admitted into the when 3 blackstriking to keep country. businessmen, herthe business friends, were lynched she madegoing. racial justice her crusade.
1894 1894 1895Eugene V. Debs- Pullman Strike- Business W.E.B. Dubois-Attempted to fell off making Pullman The first African cut jobs and wages andform a union for a increase working hours, American tospecific industry , leading to a strike. The receive athe American strike turned violent after doctorate, fromRailway Union. Pullman hired Harvard. Strongly strikerbreakers. Grover disagreed with Cleveland had to send in Washington’s federal forces to stop the violence. gradual approach to racism.
1895 1896 1860s-1890sWilliam Randolph Plessy vs. Gilded Age-Hearst- Purchased Ferguson- The Period of historythe New York Supreme Court following the CivilMorning Journal in ruled that the War, during1895, and already separation of which theowned the San races in public Progressive EraFrancisco Examiner. accommodations began. Time ofHe sought to out do was legal and did economic growth,Pulitzer who trying to not violate the along withsurpass him, led to a Fourteenthbattle of slander and Amendement. corruption, thatfallacies. attracted millions.