Endocrine Regulation In

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Kuliah ENDOCRINE REGULATION IN - TKR
Kuliah TUMBUH KEMBANG REMAJA ADOLECENTS FKUB 2007 KBK

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Endocrine Regulation In

  1. 1. Competencies-Based Curricullum 4th Semester 7th Block
  2. 2. Growth is defined as an increase in size  Development is defined as a progression  toward maturity Thus the terms are used together to describe  the complex physical, mental, and emotional processes associated with the “growing up” .
  3. 3. adolescence is derived from the Latin word  “adolescere” meaning to grow, to mature a period of human development encompassing  the transition from childhood to adulthood.
  4. 4. biological changes and sexual maturation that  occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood. Average age of onset:   10 (range 8-13) years in Girls  12 (range 10-15) years in Boys
  5. 5. Two processes contribute to physical manifestations of  puberty: adrenarche & gonadarche Adrenarche :  - 6th - 8th years of age, adrenal androgen secretion - accompanied by : a. Change in pilosebaceous b. Transient growth spurt and the c. Appearance of axillary & pubic hair but no sexual development Gonadarche :  production of sex steroids for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, permits the emergence of fertility, and mediates a wide range of other physiologic effects.
  6. 6. Female Puberty
  7. 7. OVARIAN REGULATION Hypothalamus GnRH release Pituitary gland FSH LH Ovary Inhibin estrogen
  8. 8. FSH increase in girls on puberty  associate with ovarian activation LH & FSH secretion occurs  throughout day & night FSH controlled mural granulosa  cell to produce estradiol (most potent estrogen) LH controlled theca cell to  produce androstenedione
  9. 9. Estrogens produced by ovaries induce/maintain secondary sexual characteristics and sustain germ cell production • Breast development • Libido • Body composition • Bone mineralization
  10. 10. 8 Age (year) 14 14
  11. 11. Stage Breast Development (B) Anterior Lateral 1 Prepubertal; no breast tissue 2 Areolar enlargement with breast bud 3 Enlargement of breast & areola as single mound 4 Projection of arola above breast as double mound 5 Mature adult breast with single contour
  12. 12. Stage Pubic Hair (PH) Picture 1 None None 2 A few darker hairs along labia 3 Curly pigmented hairs across pubes 4 Small adult configuration 5 Adult pubic hair configuration
  13. 13. 24 • Pubertal growth accounts for 22 about 20% of final adult height 20 Height Gain (cm/year) 18 • Pubertal total gain ~ 20-25cm 16 in females and 30cm in males 14 12 10 • Growth spurt & Fat deposition : 8 - 10-13 years girls taller & more 6 developed than same age boys 4 - Later stimulation of growth due 2 to increasing testosterone 0 246 8 10 12 14 16 18 Age (years)
  14. 14. The average lean body mass of teen females falls  from 80%-74% to 16%-27% by the end of adolescence Females experience a 120% increase in body fat  during puberty Teen females acquire approximately 1.14 kg of body  fat mass each year during puberty.
  15. 15. Male Puberty
  16. 16. TESTICULAR REGULATION Hypothalamus GnRH release Pituitary gland FSH LH Testis Inhibin Testosterone (From the Sertoli cells) (From the Leyding cells)
  17. 17. v  LH acts primarily on leydig  cell to stimulate testosteron synthesis FSH acts on sertoli cell to  reglate spermatogenesis
  18. 18. 9 Age (years) 15
  19. 19. Stage Genital Maturity Pubic Hair Gambar 1 Pre pubertal, testis 2ml None 2 Enlargement testis > 4ml, A few darker hairs at reddening of the scrotum the basis of the penis 3 Lengthening of the penis; Curly pigmented hair Further enlargement of across pubes the testis to 6-10cm 4 Broadening of the glands Small adult penis; Growth of testis to configuration 10-15ml
  20. 20. Testosterone –Deepens the voice and increases  body muscle mass (lean body mass). Change of body shape  Body fat levels decrease among males during adolescence, dropping to an average of 12% body fat by the end of puberty.
  21. 21. Thank You Puberty, 1894 Munch

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