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The american revolution

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The american revolution

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The american revolution

  1. 1. The American Revolution
  2. 2. What was the Revolution? • NOT only the war! • The Revolution was: 1763-1776 - Colonists’ change in self-perception from British subjects in 13 separate colonies to a united, independent American nation. 1775-1781 - The War of Independence 1783 - British recognition of American independence in the Treaty of Paris
  3. 3. Acts of Union, 1707 England and Scotland formed United Kingdom of Great Britain.
  4. 4. Anne died • Last Stuart monarch • Had no children George I • Throne passed to new Hanoverian Dynasty 1714
  5. 5. Georgian Era Hanoverian kings played a much smaller political role than earlier dynasties. Prime Ministers controlled Parliament. George I, 1714-1727 George II, 1727-1760 George III, 1760-1820 George IV, 1820-1830
  6. 6. 1756-1763: Seven Years’ War (aka French and Indian War)
  7. 7. North America in 1763
  8. 8. Rule Britannia? • In 1763, most Americans still bound to England - culture, consumer goods, religion, military victories • Americans thought of themselves as partners in Empire • British think of “American” as “not quite English”
  9. 9. Colonial Products and Trade
  10. 10. 1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. Aftermath of the French and Indian War: Tensions Along the Frontier
  11. 11. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
  12. 12. Proclamation Line of 1763
  13. 13. British National Debt, 1691-1785 British national debt almost doubles during the Seven Years’ War!
  14. 14. 1. Sugar Act - 1764 3. Stamp Act - 1765 2. Quartering Act - 1765 Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765 To Recoup War Expenditures
  15. 15. Stamp Act, 1765 Stamps validate documents
  16. 16. Patrick Henry and the Virginia Resolves unite the population in protest
  17. 17. Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams protest – riots, mob violence, and boycotts.
  18. 18. Stamp Act Congress petitioned King George III and Parliament for repeal
  19. 19. Declaratory Act, 1766 Parliament repealed Stamp Act but also passed Declaratory Act. • Parliament sovereign over America “in all cases whatsoever” • Estranges colonists from British gov’t officials
  20. 20. Townshend Duties, 1767-1770 • Tax American imports of paper, lead, glass, and tea • American Board of Customs Commissioners created to collect duties
  21. 21. 1. John Dickinson  Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1768) 2. Sons of Liberty boycott British goods 3. Riots against customs agents Colonial Response to Townshend Duties
  22. 22. Boston Massacre, 1770 • 4000 British troops to Boston • March 5, 1770—British soldiers fire on civilian crowd, kill five Americans • Townsend Duties repealed except tea
  23. 23. The Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770
  24. 24. Last Days of the Old Order, 1770–1773 • Customs collectors antagonize wealthy colonists such as John Hancock • Committees of correspondence build up alternative political structure
  25. 25. The Tea Act, 1773 • 1773—Parliament passes Tea Act to help East India Company (EIC) sell tea in America • Radicals protest tea tax as violation of American rights and a ploy to get them to consume taxed tea • Dec 1773—Boston Tea Party - protestors dump the tea into the harbor
  26. 26. Boston Tea Party, 1773
  27. 27. The Coercive Acts, 1774 • Port of Boston closed • Mass. colonial government re-structured - upper house made royal appointive body; town meetings permitted only 1x/yr • British officials to be tried in England, not America • British Army authorized to quarter troops in civilians’ homes
  28. 28. Québec Act, 1774 • Gives land north of Ohio R. (present-day OH, IN, IL, MI, WI) to Québec; negates sacrifices of the Seven Years’ War!
  29. 29. First Continental Congress, 1774 Agenda: How to respond to the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act?
  30. 30. Toward Independence • Sept. 1774— First Continental Congress to respond to Coercive & Quebec Acts • Congress’ “Suffolk Resolves” urging forcible resistance • Militias organize and stockpile arms • Inter-colonial “Association” halts commerce with Britain until Coercive Acts repealed
  31. 31. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783
  32. 32. Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]
  33. 33. • April 19, 1775— British Army marches into Mass. countryside to seize arms stockpile • Paul Revere & William Dawes make midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching soldiers “The Regulars are coming!”
  34. 34. • Fighting breaks out in Lexington and road to Concord • English retreat to Boston with heavy losses The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord April 18, 1775
  35. 35. Man on a Mission June 1775— Second Continental Congress appoints George Washington to head new Continental Army
  36. 36. Battle of Bunker Hill The British suffered over 40% casualties. June 17, 1775— British march on Patriot camp outside Boston  Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill Result: British victory at heavy price
  37. 37. The Battle of Bunker Hill
  38. 38. Olive Branch Petition
  39. 39. Thomas Paine: Common Sense January 1776— Thomas Paine’s Common Sense convinces colonists to sever ties with Britain. Europe, not England, “is the parent country of America”
  40. 40. Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776
  41. 41. Loyalist Strongholds
  42. 42. The Loyalist Dilemma • 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at war’s end • Treated poorly by both sides - British never trust Loyalists; Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some
  43. 43. Military Advantages 1 million people Home turf Ideological cause Americans British 10 million people More resources Naval supremacy Long supply chain
  44. 44. Military Strategies Win by attrition Insurgent war  don’t have to win, just wear British down Guerilla tactics Ally with Britain’s enemies Americans British Divide colonies in half – N & S Blockade ports to prevent flow of supplies from ally “Divide and Conquer”  use Loyalists Incite slave revolt
  45. 45. Phase II: NY & PA [1777-1778]
  46. 46. “The Times That Try Men’s Souls” Summer 1776— British Gen. Howe captures NYC; 3000 accept pardon for loyalty oath to Britain; Washington retreats through NJ
  47. 47. Washington Crossing the Delaware Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851 Dec. 25, 1776 — Washington captures 900 Hessians in Trenton, NJ
  48. 48. Battle of Princeton Jan. 3, 1777 — Washington captures Princeton, NJ; British leave NJ in patriot control; victories re-kindle American patriotism
  49. 49. 1777: Victory in a Year of Defeat • British strategy = cut New England off from other colonies; lure Continental army into decisive battle. • Gen. Burgoyne’s army moves in from Canada; defeated at Saratoga (turning point of the war?)
  50. 50. Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga
  51. 51. French Alliance Saratoga convinces France that colonists are serious British sue for peace; offer repeal of all laws since 1763, respect for colonial taxation rights February 1778— Benjamin Franklin conclude Treaty of Alliance
  52. 52. Valley Forge, 1777-1778 Howe takes Philadelphia; Washington winters at Valley Forge, PA
  53. 53. Help Arrives Washington joined by Marquis de Lafayette and Baron Friedrich von Steuben
  54. 54. Phase III: The Southern Strategy [1780-1781]
  55. 55. Britain’s “Southern Strategy” Britain thought more Loyalists in South Southern resources more valuable British take Savannah, GA and Charleston, SC but cannot pacify countryside Good US General: Nathanial Greene
  56. 56. The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau Admiral De Grasse British Gen. Cornwallis moves into VA; gets trapped on peninsula near mouth of Chesapeake Bay October 19, 1781— surrender to combined French- American forces
  57. 57. Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown: Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 “TheWorldTurnedUpsideDown!”
  58. 58. Winning the Peace American delegates John Jay, Ben Franklin, and John Adams play France against Britain for best terms Treaty of 1783 - • U.S. independence recognized • U.S. gets all territory east of Miss. R. between Canada and Florida • U.S. will help British merchants and Loyalists collect debts
  59. 59. North America After the Treaty of Paris, 1783
  60. 60. Preserving Independence • The next step = the construction of new form of government • Question remains: a government of the elite or a government of the people?

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