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Causes of the civil war


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Causes of the american civil war

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Causes of the civil war

  1. 1. Towards Disunion
  2. 2. Nation? State? Country?
  3. 3. Images credit: The Gray and the Blue: A Comic Strip History of the Civil War by Charles H. Hayes
  4. 4. Missouri Compromise, 1820
  5. 5. Mexican-American War, 1846-1848
  6. 6. The Compromise of 1850 Issue South North Compromise California CA slave CA free CA free TX/NM Border Wanted TX to get the land for slavery Wanted NM to get the land b/c slavery status undetermined NM gets land TX gets $10 million Slavery in DC Keep slavery End slavery Keep slavery, Bans slave trade Fugitive Slave Law Want strict fugitive slave law No fugitive slave law Strict fugitive slave law Slavery in NM & UT Slavery in both Ban in both Popular sovereignty Major Figures Calhoun, Taylor Webster, Fillmore Clay, Douglass
  7. 7. Compromise of 1850
  8. 8. Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852  Sold 300,000 copies in first year.  2 million in a decade!
  9. 9. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) “So this is the lady who started the Civil War.” - Lincoln
  10. 10. 1852 Presidential Election Franklin Pierce Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
  11. 11. 1852 Election Results
  12. 12. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854: decide slavery by pop sov. Unravels MO Comp and leads to bloodshed in KS
  13. 13. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
  14. 14. “Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)
  15. 15. “The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
  16. 16. John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry (20c)
  17. 17. Birth of the Republican Party, 1854
  18. 18. 1856 Presidential Election James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig
  19. 19. 1856 Election Results
  20. 20. Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857 • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney • Blacks (slave or free) aren’t US citizens, not protected by US Const, can’t sue • Congress can’t prohibit slavery in fed. territory (undoes MO Comp and KS-NB). • Slaves, as private property, can’t be taken away from their owners without due process. • Strengthened opposition to slavery, split Dems on sectional lines.
  21. 21. Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
  22. 22. John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859
  23. 23. 1860 Presidential Election
  24. 24. Republican Party Platform in 1860 • Free-soilers: Non-extension of slavery • N: Protective tariff • NW: Government aid to build Pacific RR • W: Internal improvements at federal expense • Farmers: free homesteads
  25. 25. 1860 Election Results
  26. 26. Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860
  27. 27. Lincoln’s reaction to secession “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to “preserve, protect, and defend it.” - Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861
  28. 28. Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861
  29. 29. The Basic Causes of Southern Secession 1. Slavery 2. State’s Rights vs. Federal Gov. 3. Economic Differences 4. Cultural Differences Lincoln’s Reason for Fighting the War: 1861-1862: PRESERVE UNION 1863-1865: PRESERVE UNION + END SLAVERY
  30. 30. “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union.” - Lincoln, August 22, 1862