Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Cambodian Genocide, 1975-1979
Cambodia
Khmer Empire
• Khmer people settled
Cambodia ~ 1000 BC
• Historical Peak = Khmer
Empire: 802 AD - 1200s
French Imperialism
• 1863: French protectorate
• 1887: Joined with Laos and
Vietnam to form French-
Indochina .
• 1897: Fr...
Cambodian Resistance
• The Cambodians felt threatened by change,
especially modernization.
• French administration focused...
Independence
• 1953: Independence
• Prince Norodom Sihanouk
suspicious of U.S. and
allied with Communist
China.
Independence
• 1955-1975: Vietnam War
• 1970: coup d’etat ousted
Sihanouk; monarchy
ended, Cambodia =
republic
• New gover...
Khmer Rouge
• Radical Communist Ideology:
– Anti-imperialist
– Anti-foreign
– Anti-religion
– Anti-urban
– Pro-Khmer natio...
Pol Pot
• 1925: born to wealthy farm family with
royal connections.
• 1935: Sent to royal household in
Phnom Penh. His sis...
The War In Cambodia
• N. Vietnam supplied S.
Vietnamese communists
via Ho Chi Minh Trail
• 1965-75: US bombing
expanded to...
Impact of US War on Cambodia
• Anti-American Khmer Rouge forces surge to 100,000
• By 1973, the Khmer Rouge controlled 60%...
Fall of Phnom Penh
• 1970-1975 - 2.5 million + persons fled to Phnom
Penh, from the Khmer Rouge. Food and
supplies became ...
Old People/New People
• Peasants/workers = old people
• Urban population = new people
Guiding Principals
• “One death is a tragedy – a million a
statistic.” - Joseph Stalin
• “Better to destroy ten innocent p...
Khmer Rouge Rule
• Attempted to instantly transform into farming utopia
• Abolished money, private property and religion.
...
Khmer Rouge Victims
• Anyone with connections to former government or
foreign governments
• Everyone with an education (ev...
Khmer Rouge Victims
• Est. dead 1.4-2.2 million (of 7 m. = 20-30% of population)
• ~ 50% from starvation and forced labor,...
The Killing Fields
The remains of 16,000 persons were exhumed from the killing fields at
Choeung Ek in 1980. It was the fi...
Cambodian – Vietnamese War
• 1974-1989
• Communist split
– Russia backed Vietnam
– US & China backed Khmer Rouge.
• Vietna...
Vietnamese Invasion
• January 1979: Vietnamese capture Phnom Penh and
other cities; Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge controlled
cou...
The End of the Khmer Rouge
• 1989: Vietnamese withdrawal
• 1993-2004: Sihanouk restored
to throne
• 1997: Pol Pot tried by...
Genocide Tribunal
• Establishing a tribunal was a torturous process.
– 1997 – The UN recommended an international court
to...
Duch, aka, Kang Dech Eav
• Duch was the first
defendant before
the mixed tribunal
in 2007.
• Duch was the
commandant of
th...
Cambodian genocide
Cambodian genocide
Cambodian genocide
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cambodian genocide

3,114 views

Published on

Cambodian Genocide, 1975-1979

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Cambodian genocide

  1. 1. Cambodian Genocide, 1975-1979
  2. 2. Cambodia
  3. 3. Khmer Empire • Khmer people settled Cambodia ~ 1000 BC • Historical Peak = Khmer Empire: 802 AD - 1200s
  4. 4. French Imperialism • 1863: French protectorate • 1887: Joined with Laos and Vietnam to form French- Indochina . • 1897: France assumed direct control of the king's authority to issue decrees, collect taxes, and appoint royal officials in his name.
  5. 5. Cambodian Resistance • The Cambodians felt threatened by change, especially modernization. • French administration focused on cash crops - rice, rubber - and efficient tax collection. • French relied upon immigrant Chinese and Vietnamese for labor and local administration which led to Cambodian resentment.
  6. 6. Independence • 1953: Independence • Prince Norodom Sihanouk suspicious of U.S. and allied with Communist China.
  7. 7. Independence • 1955-1975: Vietnam War • 1970: coup d’etat ousted Sihanouk; monarchy ended, Cambodia = republic • New government allied with US; Sihanouk sought refuge in China and aligned himself with the Khmer Rouge.
  8. 8. Khmer Rouge • Radical Communist Ideology: – Anti-imperialist – Anti-foreign – Anti-religion – Anti-urban – Pro-Khmer nationalist – “Ideal” society = simple, agrarian, communist; goal was to create a nation of peasant farmers
  9. 9. Pol Pot • 1925: born to wealthy farm family with royal connections. • 1935: Sent to royal household in Phnom Penh. His sister was a concubine to the King and he attended French schools. • 1949: Studied in France and joined the Communist Party. • 1953: Lost scholarship, returned home. • 1963: Elected leader of Khmer Communist Party. The Khmer Rouge = Communist military force. Saloth Sar, aka, Pol Pot or Brother #1
  10. 10. The War In Cambodia • N. Vietnam supplied S. Vietnamese communists via Ho Chi Minh Trail • 1965-75: US bombing expanded to Cambodia • 115,000 sites in 231,00 sorties, 2.75 m. tons of munitions • ~ 600,000 Cambodians killed
  11. 11. Impact of US War on Cambodia • Anti-American Khmer Rouge forces surge to 100,000 • By 1973, the Khmer Rouge controlled 60% of Cambodian territory and 25% of its population. • In 1975, Khmer Rouge capture capital city, Phnom Penh
  12. 12. Fall of Phnom Penh • 1970-1975 - 2.5 million + persons fled to Phnom Penh, from the Khmer Rouge. Food and supplies became scarce. • When Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, the entire city was forcibly evacuated within days including hospital patients. Other major cities met the same fate. • 1975 = “Year Zero” - radical agrarian collectivization.
  13. 13. Old People/New People • Peasants/workers = old people • Urban population = new people
  14. 14. Guiding Principals • “One death is a tragedy – a million a statistic.” - Joseph Stalin • “Better to destroy ten innocent people than let one enemy go free.” - Khmer Rouge slogan • "To keep you is no benefit. To destroy you is no loss.” - Khmer Rouge slogan in reference to New People
  15. 15. Khmer Rouge Rule • Attempted to instantly transform into farming utopia • Abolished money, private property and religion. • Tortured and killed all educated • Relocate urban dwellers to countryside, forced to farm 10+ hrs/day, mass starvation and disease, 80% of pop. suffered from malaria • Totally isolated the country from the outside.
  16. 16. Khmer Rouge Victims • Anyone with connections to former government or foreign governments • Everyone with an education (even people wearing glasses) • Ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese, Thai and other minorities • Buddhist monks, Christians, and Muslims • "Economic saboteurs:” former urban dwellers with no agricultural ability
  17. 17. Khmer Rouge Victims • Est. dead 1.4-2.2 million (of 7 m. = 20-30% of population) • ~ 50% from starvation and forced labor, ~50% from executions (mostly by pickax in order to save bullets)
  18. 18. The Killing Fields The remains of 16,000 persons were exhumed from the killing fields at Choeung Ek in 1980. It was the first indication of just how terrible the Khmer Rouge rule had been.
  19. 19. Cambodian – Vietnamese War • 1974-1989 • Communist split – Russia backed Vietnam – US & China backed Khmer Rouge. • Vietnamese/ Cambodian animosity • Territorial conflict
  20. 20. Vietnamese Invasion • January 1979: Vietnamese capture Phnom Penh and other cities; Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge controlled countryside • Sihanouk returned to exile in China. • Khmer Rouge rule and war had decimated the Cambodian population. Only half of pre-war population remained.
  21. 21. The End of the Khmer Rouge • 1989: Vietnamese withdrawal • 1993-2004: Sihanouk restored to throne • 1997: Pol Pot tried by a Khmer Rouge “people tribunal.” He was sentenced to house arrest and died in 1998. • By 1999, most Khmer Rouge leaders had surrendered. Pol Pot in 1997.
  22. 22. Genocide Tribunal • Establishing a tribunal was a torturous process. – 1997 – The UN recommended an international court to conduct genocide trials. – 2000- The UN and Cambodia agreed on a mixed court. – 2001 – Cambodia passed a law giving legal status to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). – 2002 – The scope of the trials were limited to senior Khmer leaders and crimes committed between 1975 and 1979. – By 2006, a total of 12 foreign judges & prosecutors were selected plus 17 Cambodian judges & prosecutors. – 2007 – The first actual trial commenced.
  23. 23. Duch, aka, Kang Dech Eav • Duch was the first defendant before the mixed tribunal in 2007. • Duch was the commandant of the Toul Sleng prison complex. He was responsible for the torture, mutilation and death of 14,000.

×