Objectives2.01 Analyze the effects of territorial expansion and the admission of new states to the Union.2.02 Describe how the growth of nationalism and sectionalism were reflected in art, literature, and language.2.03 Distinguish between the economic and social issues that led to sectionalism and nationalism.2.04 Assess political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism and nationalism.2.05 Identify the major reform movements and evaluate their effectiveness.2.06 Evaluate the role of religion in the debate over slavery and other social movements and issues.
The Second “Great Awakening:” Revivalist Meeting
Charles G. Finney The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.“soul-shaking” conversion
Transcendentalism“Transcend” intellect: shift from reason emotionRestore man to divine dignity: Abolitionism Welfare Education Healthcare Justice
Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Henry David Emerson ThoreauNature Resistance to Civil Self-Reliance (1841) Walden(1832) Disobedience (1854) (1849) “The American Scholar” (1837) R3-1/3/4/5
“The Drunkard’s Progress” From the first glass to the grave, 1846
Social Reform Prostitution The “Fallen Woman” Sarah Ingraham (1802-1887)1835 Advocate of Moral ReformFemale Moral Reform Society focused on “Johns” andpimps, not the girls. R2-1
Educational Reform Religious Training Secular Education MA first state support public schoolsBy 1860, all states had free education to whites. US had one of highest literacy rates. WHY?!
Horace Mann (1796-1859) “Father of American Education” Children = clay “molded” into perfection Discouraged corporal punishment Est. state teacher-trainingR3-6
McGuffey ReadersReligious parables to teach “American values” Middle class morality and respect for order “3 Rs” and “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety)
Early 19c Women1. No vote2. Legal minor3. Property: • Single yes • Married no control over property or children; no wills, contracts, or lawsuits w/o husband’s permission4. Could not initiate divorce
“Cult of Domesticity”• Woman’s “sphere” = home (refuge from cruel world)• Role to “civilize” husband and family The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural! - 1830s MA minister
Cult of Domesticity = Slavery Second Great Awakening inspired women to improve status Lucy Stone Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké Southern Abolitionists American Women’s Suffrage, Ed. Woman’s JournalR2-9
Women EducatorsTroy, NY Female Seminary 1837 Mt. to train female teachers Holyoke, first college for women Emma Willard Mary Lyons (1787-1870) (1797-1849)
What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
R2-6/7 Women’s Rights World Anti-Slavery Convention, 1840, London Seneca Falls, NY Declaration of Sentiments, 1848 Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton