Knowledge management 3 (km in action)

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Third part of a six parts knowledge management course for MBA students. This part deals with the question of knowledge in project and simple tools for KM.

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Knowledge management 3 (km in action)

  1. 1. Part 3. Knowledge management in action david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  2. 2. Part 3. Contents Projects as framework for KM KM and Motivation Knowledge creation Knowledge in projects Transfer of Experience Tools for transfering experience Community of Practice Lessons Learned Workshop david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  3. 3. Projects as framework for KM david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  4. 4. KM and Motivation Organisational knowledge management ≠ Personal knowledge management? The key is to find where corporate and individual knowledge interests overlap Training => Autonomy => Motivation => Productivity david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  5. 5. Knowledge creation Knowledge is needed to develop core competencies Knowledge requirements not met => two solutions: developing knowledge internally the knowledge base can be expanded externally through outsourcing david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  6. 6. Knowledge creation (2) (creative environment) david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  7. 7. david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  8. 8. david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  9. 9. david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  10. 10. Knowledge creation (3) (external knowledge) Reasons for including external knowledge sources in internal innovation processes The knowledge base can be expanded externally through outsourcing david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  11. 11. Knowledge creation (3) Methods Brainstorming Mind Mapping http://www.mindomo.com Game storming http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mrt u4MmthE 6-3-5 Method (Brainwriting) david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  12. 12. Brainstorming david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  13. 13. Mind Mapping david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  14. 14. Knowledge in projects One aim of projects is to complete a complex task or problem in the most efficient manner possible. Integrating knowledge management into project implementation processes involves three basic knowledge management functions: establishing an efficient knowledge system for the project thinking of knowledge transfer between projects implementing transfer of experience between projects  Transfer of experience david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr  Lessons Learned Workshop  Community of Practice
  15. 15. Knowledge in projects Transfer of Experience (1) The transfer of experience is a special form of knowledge transfer. This type of transfer should serve to broaden the spectrum of decision-making possibilities and courses of action open to employees and avoid unnecessary repeated learning through trial and error. david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  16. 16. Knowledge in projects Transfer of Experience (2) Transfer of Experience through : Personalisation Codification Organisational level Human Network (expert database, social network) Repository and distribution source for documented learning experiences (Intranet) Team level Support: Communities of Practice Support: Lessons Learned Workshops Individual level Transfer of experience through processes of communication and mutual observation Transfer of experience through information and documentation david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  17. 17. Knowledge in projects Transfer of Experience (3) Advantages and disadvantages of a Codification strategy + - + knowledge is always available + particularly suitable for frequent re-use + can be passed on quickly and easily; high degree of distribution - codification is complex and time-consuming - documented knowledge can quickly become obsolete - complicated wording or terminology makes knowledge difficult to absorb - context cannot be fully described/provided - some knowledge cannot be made explicit - different "mental models" prevent direct use of documented knowledge david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  18. 18. Knowledge in projects Transfer of Experience (4) Advantages and disadvantages of a Personalisation strategy + - + knowledge is always up-to-date + complexity of knowledge transfer can be adapted to the situation + creative innovation possible during transfer - complicated search for the right person - the right person is not available - personal aversion david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  19. 19. Knowledge in projects Tools for transfering Experience Community of Practice (Personalisation / Team level) ≠ project Lessons Learned Workshop (Codification / Team level) => project david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  20. 20. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Community of Practice A community of practice (CoP) is a group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. The group can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally (Wikipedia) david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  21. 21. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Community of Practice (2) Real / Virtual / Mobile CoP Origin: LAVE, Jean; WENGER, Etienne (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Example: Xerox customer service representatives CoP vs Project team david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  22. 22. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Community of Practice (3) CoP and KM => how to transfer tacit knowledge? Communities of practice help the individual bridge the gap between knowing what and knowing how. CoP and motivation david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  23. 23. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Community of Practice (4) Cultivating CoP by: Evolving Design Open dialog within and outside Different levels of participation Public and private exchanges Value of community Combine familiarity and novelty Rhythm for the community david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  24. 24. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Lessons Learned Workshop Why closing a project with a LLW? A simple method to discuss and transfer experience: What was done well in the project? What could have been improved? What would be the ideal situation for points that could have been improved? What would I personally do differently in the next project? What should the organisation do differently in the next project? david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  25. 25. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Lessons Learned Workshop (2) Defining the relevant issues Lessons Learned Workshop Processing and applying the results david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  26. 26. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience / LLW (3) Defining the relevant issues: categories for a LLW EXTERNAL COOPERATION Customers (Cooperation, Communication and information flow, Satisfaction) Suppliers (Cooperation, Communication and information flow, Satisfaction) INTERNAL COOPERATION Projet management (Coordonation, Decision making, Risk assessment, Crisis management)) Projet communication (Meeting structure, meeting culture) Cooperation in team Strengths and weeknesses in project culture Cooperation with project environment / internal interfaces Cooperation between project and line management Continuity of key people / team members Crisis / conflict management ORGANISATION / PLANNING OF PROJECTS Project structure Clarity of roles (Competencies, responsabilitues) Information flow / management Cost steering / monetary goals Project documentation (Transparency of project status, project handbook) Project team (Selection of team members, ability of team members, cost / deadline / quality awareness) Requirements Planning of technology and methodology david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr Project planning (Performance, deadline, cost, personnel)
  27. 27. Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience Lessons Learned Workshop (4) How to manage a Lessons Learned Workshop? Background Cluster building (Brainstorming) Lessons learned After the workshop Examples of insights gained david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  28. 28. Detailed time schedule for a Lessons Learned Workshop Knowledge in projects / Tools for transfering Experience / LLW (5) david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr
  29. 29. Recommended Reading (Part 3) david.vallat@univ-lyon1.fr

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