Distributed Generation In Spain

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Distributed Generation In Spain

  1. 1. MASTER IN TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN THE POWER SECTOR MASTER THESIS DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN SPAIN AUTHOR: DAVID TREBOLLE TREBOLLE Madrid, 01/01/2006
  2. 2. Distributed Generation in Spain Table of Contents 1. Introduction 10 1.1. Reason of thesis 11 1.2. Purpose of thesis 11 1.3. Structure of thesis 12 2. Definition and types of Distributed Generation technologies 13 2.1. Definition 14 2.2. Different types of technologies 17 2.2.1 Gas turbines 18 2.2.2 Microturbines 20 2.2.3 Steam turbines 22 2.2.4 Combined cycles 23 2.2.5 Alternative motors 24 2.2.6 Mini-hydraulics 26 2.2.7 Wind farms 27 2.2.8 Solar 28 2.2.9 Fuel cells 34 2.2.10 Flywheels 37 3. Installed power and distributed generation production in Spain 40 3.1. Installed power of distributed generation 41 3.2. Distributed generation production in Spain 48 3.3. Potential of renewable energies in peninsular Spain 50 4. Regulations regarding distributed generation in the Spanish power sector 52 4.1. Period 1998-2004 54 4.1.1 RD 2818/1998 54 4.1.2 RD841/2002 55 2
  3. 3. Distributed Generation in Spain 4.2. Period 2004 – Present: 57 4.2.1 RD 436/2004 57 4.2.2 RD 2392/2004 60 4.2.3 RD 2351/2004 60 4.2.4 RD 1454/2005 60 4.3. European regulation 62 5. Impact of DG in grid business. Planning and design 63 5.1. Introduction 64 5.2. Influence of DG in the planning and design of the grid 66 5.2.1 Technical grid connection criteria 66 5.2.2 New investments in the grid 69 6. Impact of DG in grid business. Grid operation and exploitation 76 6.1. Influence of DG in the operation and exploitation of the grid 77 6.1.1 Delivery grid 77 6.1.2 MV and LV grid 81 6.2. Influence of DG in losses 81 6.3. Influence of DG in service quality 87 6.3.1 Product quality 87 6.3.2 Continuity of supply 98 6.4. Influence of DG in the voltage profiles 98 6.4.1 Delivery grid 99 6.4.2 MV and LV grid 105 6.5. Influence of DG in the safety of maintenance personnel 107 7. Influence of DG in short-circuit powers 109 7.1. Transmission 111 7.2. Distribution 111 3
  4. 4. Distributed Generation in Spain 7.3. Conclusions 113 8. Influence of DG in ancillary services 115 8.1. Power Frequency Control 116 8.2. Voltage Control - Reactive 128 8.3. Autonomous start-up and island operation 136 9. Impact of DG in the purchases of power from distribution companies 142 10. Conclusions 145 10.1. Influences of distributed generation in the planning and design of networks 147 10.2. Influences of distributed generation in the operation and exploitation of the network 147 10.3. Influences of distributed generation in short-circuit powers 148 10.4. Influences of distributed generation in ancillary services 148 10.5. Influences of distributed generation in the purchases of power from distribution companies 149 11. Bibliography 150 4
  5. 5. Distributed Generation in Spain Table of Figures Figure 2.1.1 Traditional structure of the power sector 14 Figure 2.1.2 New grid layout with presence of DG 17 Figure 2.2.1.1 Elements involved in the Rankine cycle 18 Figure 2.2.1.2 P-V and T-S diagrams of the Rankine cycle 18 Figure 2.2.1.3 Gas turbine 19 Figure 2.2.1.4 Characteristics and properties of gas turbines 20 Figure 2.2.2.1 80kW Microturbine 20 Figure 2.2.2.2 Characteristics and properties of microturbines 22 Figure 2.2.3.1 Steam turbine 22 Figure 2.2.3.2 Characteristics and properties of steam turbines 23 Figure 2.2.4.1 Characteristics and properties of combined cycles 24 Figure 2.2.5.1 Internal combustion engine 25 Figure 2.2.5.2 Characteristics and properties of alternative 26 Figure 2.2.6.1 Characteristics and properties of Mini-hydraulics 27 Figure 2.2.7.1 Wind farms 27 Figure 2.2.7.2 Characteristics and properties of Wind farm stations 28 Figure 2.2.8.1 Photovoltaic panels 29 Figure 2.2.8.2 Characteristics and properties of photovoltaic power 30 Figure 2.2.8.3 Parabolic cylinder collectors 31 Figure 2.2.8.4 Production diagram of solar station with steam turbine 31 Figure 2.2.8.5 Solar tower and heliostats 32 Figure 2.2.8.6 Diagram of a solar station production process with a tower and heliostats 33 Figure 2.2.8.7 Parabolic collectors 33 Figure 2.2.8.8 Characteristics and properties of solar heat 34 Figure 2.2.9.1 Fuel cells. Operation diagram 35 Figure 2.2.9.2 Characteristics and properties of fuel cells 37 Figure 2.2.10.1 Flywheels 38 Figure 2.2.10.2 Operation diagram of a flywheel 38 Figure 3.1.1 Evolution of installed power under special regime in Spain 42 Figure 3.1.2 Installed DG power by autonomous communities 44 Figure 3.1.3 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group A 46 Figure 3.1.4 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group B 46 5
  6. 6. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 3.1.5 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group C 47 Figure 3.1.6 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group D 47 Figure 3.2.1 DG Production in GWh. 2003 49 Figure 3.2.2 Renewable production by technology. 2003 49 Figure 3.3.1 Potential renewable installed power estimated for 2050 51 Figure 5.2.1.1 Example protection diagram for connecting to the distribution network 68 Figure 5.2.2.1 Overload of MV grid by degree of penetration of cogeneration 71 Figure 5.2.2.2 Annual net and load curve load of 220/45kV 72 Figure 5.2.2.3 Annual and load curve generator production chart 72 Figure 5.2.2.4 Gross annual net and load curve load of 220/45kV transformer 73 Figure 5.2.2.5 Annual net load and load curve of 132/45kV transformer 73 Figure 5.2.2.6 Annual and load curve generator production chart 74 Figure 5.2.2.7 Annual net and load curve load of 132/45kV 74 Figure 6.1.1.1 Delivery grid in Segovia 78 Figure 6.1.1.2 P-V curve. Voltage collapse 79 Figure 6.1.1.3 Delivery grid in Madrid 80 Figure 6.2.1 Cash flow diagrams in the acquisition of energy from the Spanish pool 82 Figure 6.2.1 U Curves. Losses in distribution networks depending on degree of penetration of DG 85 Figure 6.2.2 U Curves. Losses in distribution networks depending on degree of penetration of DG by technology 86 Figure 6.3.1.2 Perturbations corresponding to changes in characteristics of the voltage wave 88 Figure 6.3.1.3 Voltage gap required in wind farm facilities 90 Figure 6.3.1.4 Asynchronous generator 91 Figure 6.3.1.5 Double feed asynchronous generator set 91 Figure 6.3.1.6 Asynchronous generator set with converter in stator 92 Figure 6.3.1.7 80% gaps with durations of 400, 1200 and 1300 ms 92 Figure 6.3.1.8 Sliding of wind farm generator in 400, 1200 and 1400ms gaps 93 Figure 6.3.1.9 Intensities of direct leg of wind farm generator before 400, 1200 and 1400ms gaps 94 Figure 6.3.1.10 Intensities of transverse leg of wind farm generator before 400, 1200 and 1400ms gaps 94 6
  7. 7. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 6.3.1.11 Blackout after a three-phase failure in the 400kV substation of Loeches 95 6.3.1.12 Evolution of wind farm production delivered in Magallón 96 Figure 6.3.1.13 Evolution of 400/220kV transformer load in Magallon 96 Figure 6.3.1.14 Voltage gap in the Magallon incident 97 Figure 6.3.1.15 Loss of wind farm production due to the incident 97 Figure 6.4.1 P-Angle and Q-V relation for a generator set connected to an infinite network 99 Figure 6.4.1.1 Delivery grid in Segovia 100 Figure 6.4.1.2 Generation of P and Q of cogenerator connected to substation B 101 Figure 6.4.1.3 Voltage profile in substation B 101 Figure 6.4.1.4 Delivery grid in Leon 102 Figure 6.4.1.5 Generation of P and Q of generator set connected to substation D 103 Figure 6.4.1.6 Voltage profile of substation D 104 Figure 6.4.1.7 Voltage profiles of substations F and D 104 Figure 6.4.2.1 Voltage profile in MV grids 106 Figure 6.5.1 Five golden rules 108 Figure 7.1 Single wire diagram of a short-circuit 110 Figure 8.1.1 Frequency response in a generation failure 117 Figure 8.1.2 Demand profile on the peninsula. 8-12-2005 119 Figure 8.1.3 Wind farm production profile on the peninsula. 8-12- 2005 120 Figure 8.1.4 Demand profile on the peninsula. 1-03-2005 121 Figure 8.1.5 Wind farm production profile on the peninsula. 1-03- 2005 121 Figure 8.1.6 Interconnection lines from Italy to Europe 123 Figure 8.1.7 Balance of power in Italy on disconnect 124 Figure 8.1.8 Evolution of frequencies in Italy before the Blackout 124 Figure 8.1.9 Evolution of frequency in the UCTE after the Italian disconnect 126 Figure 8.1.10 Evolution of the deviation in the exchange with France after the Italian disconnect 126 Figure 8.1.11 power balance in Spain after the Italian disconnect 127 Figure 8.2.1 Voltage – reactive – control diagram 128 Figure 8.2.2 Voltage profile requirements of the 400kV network depending on reactive as per OP 7.4 131 Figure 8.2.3 Voltage profile requirements of the 220kV network depending on reactive as per OP 7.4 131 7
  8. 8. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 8.2.4 Classification of time periods: peak, valley and flat as per OP 7.4 132 Figure 8.2.5 Power factor requirements at transmission border points – distribution for peak hours as per OP 7.4 132 Figure 8.2.6 Power factor requirements at transmission border points – distribution for valley hours as per OP 7.4 133 Figure 8.2.7 Power factor requirements at transmission border points – distribution for flat hours as per OP 7.4 134 Figure 8.3.1 Zone classification for reposition in the event of zonal or national blackout 137 Figure 8.3.2 Reposition diagram in the event of national blackout 138 Figure 8.3.3 Possible future active distribution network diagram 140 Figure 8.3.4 Delivery grid in Segovia 141 8
  9. 9. Distributed Generation in Spain Index of Tables Table 3.1.1 Installed power of the various DG technologies 41 Table 3.1.2 Installed DG power by province according to classification in RD 436/2004 43 Table 3.1.2 Installed DG power by autonomous communities 44 Table 3.1.4 Installed DG power by autonomous community as per RD 436/2004 45 Table 3.3.1 Potential of renewable installed power estimated for 2050 50 Table 4.1.2.1 Summary of RD841/2002 57 Table 4.2.1.1 Incentive to the compensation of reactive as per RD 436/2004 58 Table 8.1.1 Coverage of demand on blackout in Italy 125 Table 8.1.2 International exchanges in Spain at the time of the blackout in Italy 125 Table 8.2.1 Incentive to the compensation of reactive as per RD 436/2004 129 9
  10. 10. Distributed Generation in Spain 1. Introduction 10
  11. 11. Distributed Generation in Spain 1. Introduction 1.1. Reason of thesis The current map of the Spanish Electricity Sector, result of Act 54/1997, established generation and sale as free competition activities and transmission and distribution as regulated activities. As the price has become a real driver that encourages the activities within a deregulated environment, the fee became the "regulated price" that rewards the activities of the businesses that constitute the so called natural monopolies. Immersed in this scenario, in the last few years, there has been an important increase in the number of Distributed Generation (DG) facilities connected to Distribution, Medium and Low Voltage networks, which we shall refer to as distribution hereinafter. These connections create a series of costs and benefits in these networks, such as increasing or reducing losses, the need to strengthen the capacity of lines and transformation centres in order to provide for new power flows injected by DG or, on the contrary, reduce the investments in network reinforcements (generating points closer to demand reduces energy flows). In a way, these costs and/or benefits should be included in the network access fees. On the other hand, the operation of the distribution network will become increasingly complicated, as the distribution network is no longer considered a radial type grid where power flows go from higher voltages to lower; instead the grids show different behaviour throughout the day as generators connect and disconnect without any kind of control by the operator of the distribution networks. The connection of these generators in the lower levels of the hierarchy changes the scheme, generating a series of technical and regulatory problems. The current Spanish access fee regulation does not add cost for the use of the generation grids. This generates economic inefficiencies, as it does not include costs or benefits contributed by each generator. In addition, there is no transparent method that can be explained in order to calculate access fees. There is no uniformity of criteria in the operation or the connection of distributed generation to the grid. 1.2. Purpose of thesis This thesis has been produced in order to analyze the various difficulties that arise in the current distribution framework as a result of DG in the grid, both from a technical and regulatory perspective within the Spanish peninsular electricity system. Extrapeninsular systems will not be reviewed in this thesis. 11
  12. 12. Distributed Generation in Spain The technical and regulatory problems derived from the presence of DG in distribution networks encompass several aspects such as: losses, investments, voltage profiles, service quality, short-circuit power, safety of maintenance personnel, stability, ancillary services and grid operation. This thesis does not aim to provide a technical solution to all technical and regulatory problems that may arise in power grids caused by the presence of DG, but it does provide sufficient information to identify all the problems and the reasons for the current situation. It will describe actual distribution problems within the Spanish power sector and analyze the most important regulatory aspects that in some way have caused most of the inconsistencies in the distribution of the power sector. 1.3. Structure of thesis This master thesis is broken down into three main areas. Chapter two provides a qualitative description of the various technologies that are being integrated into existing distribution networks. We will also review other technologies of recent appearance but not widespread such as fuel cells or flywheels. Chapter three shows the installed generation power under special regime and its production. Chapter four provides a regulatory revision mentioning the most important aspects that have determined the distributed generation framework and the existing distribution network. Chapter 5 to 9 covers the technical and regulatory impact caused by distributed generation to the distribution activity, considering both its activity as manager and owner of the distribution network, and the activity of the purchasing agent in the still regulated electricity wholesale market. Chapter 10 highlights the most important conclusions of the thesis. 12
  13. 13. Distributed Generation in Spain 2. Definition and types of Distributed Generation technologies 13
  14. 14. Distributed Generation in Spain 2. Definition and types of Distributed Generation technologies 2.1. Definition Traditionally, the structure of the power systems presented a highly hierarchical aspect: Figure 2.1.1 Traditional structure of the power sector Conventional generation connected to the transmission grid and power was transmissioned long distances to the consumption centres. When this power reached the distribution network, the power flow was practically unidirectional due to the radial nature of such grids. Slowly, distributed generation started to connect to networks with a lower voltage than the transmission grid. Initially this type of generation was not of a lobbying nature; it was installed in centres whose activities had a high social repercussion such as hospitals, airports, etc. Thanks to incentives policies based fundamentally on premiums or subsidies, new technologies have been introduced with a clearly different objective than the previous case, involving an important economic incentive. 14
  15. 15. Distributed Generation in Spain Thanks to these policies, wind farm power has increased considerably during the last decade reaching 9500MW installed in the Iberian Peninsula. There is currently an important increase in solar power as a distributed resource thanks to the economic incentive with the current applicable regulation. Today there is no accurate and unique definition of Distributed Generation (DG). Several authors or organizations use similar definitions although they differ in several aspects. Some of the definitions we can find are: • Willis & Scott (Willis and Scott, 2000): These authors define DG as small generators (typically between 15 kW and 10 MW) distributed in the power systems. According to said authors, these generators may be connected to the distribution network (at the facilities of the distribution company or in consumer facilities) or isolated from them. Furthermore, they use the concept of Disperse Generation to refer to very small generators, of the size necessary to feed residential consumption or small businesses (typically between 10 and 250 kW) and connected to the facilities of consumers or isolated from the grids. • Jenkins et al. (Jenkins, 2000): These authors prefer a broad definition without discussing details regarding the size of generators, connection voltage, generation technology, etc. However, they mention some attributes generally associated to DG: Not planned centrally. Not distributed or programmed centrally. Normally with less than 50 or 100 MW of power. Usually connected to distribution networks (V ≤ 145 kV). • Ackermann (Ackermann, 2001): These authors propose a definition of DG based on a series of aspects: purpose of DG, location, capacity or size of facility, service area, generation technology, environmental impact, operation mode, ownership and penetration of DG. Only the first two aspects are considered relevant by said authors proposing the following definition: “Distributed Generation is a source of power connected to the distribution network or in the facilities of consumers”. The distinction between the distribution network and the transmission grid has been left subordinated to the legal provisions in each country. Moreover, they propose a classification of DG depending on its size: Micro DG: 1 W < power < 5 kW. Small DG: 5 kW < power < 5 MW. Medium DG: 5 MW < power < 50 MW. Large DG: 50 MW < power < 300 MW • Distributed Generation Coordination Group (DTI/OFGEM Distributed Generation Coordination Group, 2002): this body defines DG as the generation of electricity connected to distribution networks instead of the national high voltage 15
  16. 16. Distributed Generation in Spain grid. This is a very broad definition as it does not distinguish between the size or type of generator, the only differentiating element with traditional generation is the fact they are connected to the distribution network. • International Energy Agency (International Energy Agency, 2002): This body refers to DG as the production of power at consumer facilities or in the facilities of the distribution company, supplying power directly to the distribution network. As can be seen from the aforementioned definitions, almost all authors coincide on a fundamental characteristic of DG: to be connected to distribution networks. The biggest discrepancies arise on the size or power of DG although these are smaller than traditional generators. • Doctoral thesis Distributed Generation: Technical aspects and its regulatory treatment (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Distributed Generation are sources of electricity connected to the distribution network, either directly to said grids or connected through consumer facilities, which in this case may operate in parallel to the grid or in isolation. • Generally and considering the regulatory aspects for the Spanish power sector, we could say that Spain defines distributed generation as the combination of electricity generation systems connected to the distribution networks as a result of their reduced power and location close to consumers. The main characteristics are: • Connected to the distribution network. • Often a part of the generation is consumed by the same facility and the rest is exported to a distribution network (e.g.: cogeneration) • There is no centralized planning of said generation and is not distributed centrally. • The power of the groups is usually less than 50 MW. Graphically, we have evolved from the aforementioned traditional scheme to the following type of grid: 16
  17. 17. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.1.2 New grid layout with presence of DG 2.2. Different types of technologies The following shows the various types of technology employed in generation facilities connected to the distribution network. The most important characteristics of each type will be described including a table with the type of fuel they use, their size in terms of installed power, efficiency, availability, cost of investment, cost of operation and maintenance and the average cost calculated based on average availability, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. This last cost is the one employed to compare the cost of each technology. We recommend reading the following for further details (Jenkins, 2000; Marnay, 2000; ONSITE SYCOM Energy Corporation, 1999; Penche, 1998 and Willis and Scott, 2000). The emissions analysis is based on (Greene and Hammerschalg, 2000) and (California Alliance for Distributed Energy Resources, 1999) and (Mendez Quezada, 2005). Because the purpose of this thesis is not to describe the state of the art of each type of technology, below are the definitions and most important aspects of each technology: • Gas turbines • Microturbines Possible cogeneration processes • Steam turbines • Combined cycle • Alternative motors • Mini-hydraulics • Wind farms • Solar 17
  18. 18. Distributed Generation in Spain • Fuel cells • Flywheels 2.2.1 Gas turbines Gas turbines have experienced great progress in the last decades mainly as a result of the aeronautic industry. Thanks to the advances in efficiency and reliability, this technology represents an excellent alternative for DG uses. Gas turbines, sometimes called open cycle gas turbines due to its big combined cycle brother are based on the Rankine Cycle: Figure 2.2.1.1 Elements involved in the Rankine cycle Figure 2.2.1.2 P-V and T-S diagrams of the Rankine cycle 18
  19. 19. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.1.3 Gas turbine The heat produced by the turbines offers an excellent option for cogeneration purposes. Turbines respond quickly to changes in demand as they have little inertia. These characteristics make this technology suitable for local power demand and even to work in isolated operation mode feeding part of the distribution network. It can be distributed perfectly and does not generate problems in terms of harmonics or flicker. One of the inconveniences is that its efficiency is more affected depending on the full load percentage it operates at in comparison with other technologies such as alternative motors. Production also depends on the environmental conditions it operates in (pressure, temperature and humidity). For example, the generated power drops as the temperature increases, which increases as the pressure rises. They produce less noise and vibration than the alternative motors but produce a noise typical of turbines, which is difficult to muffle without affecting turbine efficiency. The following is a summary chart with the most important characteristics (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Turbines Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Natural gas & Diesel Cogeneration *** Size (MW): > 1MW Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI) %: 25-40% Island mode *** Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 545-700 Demand mon *** NOx 1.8-5 Ancillary services *** SO2 0.14-0.18 Black start *** 19
  20. 20. Distributed Generation in Spain CO 0.5-4.5 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: 90-98 Harmonics *** Start-up time: 10 min-1 h Flicker *** Surface (m2/kW): 0.003-0.01 Remarks: Its efficiency is largely Cost of investment (€/kW): 350-950 dependent on the operation point O&M (cent/kWh): 0.3-0.5 and environmental factors such as LEC (cent/kwh)i: 6.4 (4.3-9.8) pressure and temperature. It LEC (pts/kwh)i: 10.7 (7.1-16.3) produces the characteristic noise of turbines. It is a mature technology. i: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.1.4 Characteristics and properties of gas turbines 2.2.2 Microturbines They are combustion turbines with power in the range of 20-500kW, developed based on blow turbo technology from the automobile industry and small turbo reactors from the aeronautics industry. They consist of a compressor, turbine, heat recovery and generator, normally assembled on a single axis. Its main advantages are the lack of moving parts, its compact size, its great variety of sizes and less noise and emissions than a gas turbine. Its main disadvantage is its high cost. The following picture shows an 80kW microturbine: Figure 2.2.2.1 80kW Microturbine 20
  21. 21. Distributed Generation in Spain They support two modes of operation: • With heat recovery, which allows transferring part of the heat from the exhaust fumes to the compressor input, increasing its temperature and allowing a substantial improvement of electrical efficiency of the microturbine, which can reach performance levels around 27-30%. • Without the heat recovery, in cogeneration applications, where the use of the residual heat takes precedence over electricity production. In this case, the electrical efficiency drops to 15-18%, but total performance can be around 80%. Microturbines can be used in various ways: a) As backup energy b) To satisfy peaks in demand c) In hybrid systems with fuel cells d) In hybrid electric vehicles Micro-turbines Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Natural gas, propane Cogeneration ** & Diesel Size (MW): 20-500MW Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI) %: 20-30 Island mode *** Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 590-800 Demand mon *** NOx 0.09-0.64 Ancillary services ** SO2 Negligible Black start *** CO 0.14-0.82 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: 90-98 Harmonics ◊◊i Start-up time: 60 Flicker ◊ Surface (m2/kW): 0.025-0.065 Remarks: This technology is not Cost of investment (€/kW): 700-1,000 very efficient and still under O&M (cent/kWh): 0.5-1 development. LEC (cent/kwh)ii: 8.6 (6.0-12.5) LEC (pts/kwh)ii: 14.3 (10.0-20.7) i: New types of investors tend to minimize this problem. ii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor 21
  22. 22. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.2.2 Characteristics and properties of microturbines 2.2.3 Steam turbines In this technology, the fuel is used to produce heat, which is used to generate steam. The steam is used in the turbines to produce electricity. This technology can be used with a great variety of fuels including natural gas, Diesel, solid urban waste and biomass resources (agricultural waste or energy cultivation for the generation of electricity). Figure 2.2.3.1 Steam turbine This technology, typical of conventional stations, is justifiable in DG under cogeneration applications (when fossil fuels are used) or as renewable generation. In the case of biomass, it can mainly be obtained from forest or agricultural waste and energy cultivation. Forest or agricultural waste was obtained as a subproduct of other activities such as pruning of olive trees or vineyards, cereal straw such as wheat and barley, wood transformation process, olive industry waste, cleaning of hills, etc. Energy cultivations are dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass in order to generate electricity. It uses species of great energy potential and rapid growth such as the thistle and eucalyptus. This technology presents similar characteristics of large size generator stations. They do not present problems with harmonics or flicker and can be perfectly programmed. Their technical characteristics allow them to operate in isolation mode. If biomass is used as fuel, it has the inconvenience that it requires large areas of land to obtain sufficient biomass and the use of monocultivations can lead to the deterioration of the land. Steam turbines 22
  23. 23. Distributed Generation in Spain Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Biomass (can also Cogeneration ** use natural gas, diesel, SUW, etc.) Size (MW): >5 Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI) %: 20-30 Island mode *** Emissions (kg/MWh)i: CO2 0 – 1,000 Demand mon *** NOx 0.15-3 Ancillary services *** SO2 Less than 0.15 Black start *** CO 1-4 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: 90 Harmonics *** Surface (m2/kW): Flicker *** Cost of investment (€/kW): 1,500-3,000 Remarks: It is a mature O&M (cent/kWh): 0.8-1 generation technology LEC (cent/kwh)ii: 9.1 (6.9-12.0) LEC (pts/kwh)ii: 15.2 (11.5-20.0) i: The behaviour of emissions depends on the type of fuel used. The values presented in the table correspond to biomass. If renewable biomass is used, the CO2 levels can be considered zero as in this case CO2 issued on burning is absorbed during growth. ii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.3.2 Characteristics and properties of steam turbines 2.2.4 Combined cycles Combined cycles integrate one or more turbines with a water steam cycle. Heat recovered from the turbines is used as part of the steam cycle, achieving high levels of efficiency. Today, this technology is only used in DG for large scale cogeneration applications thanks to its efficiency and low cost of installation and generation. Combined cycle is defined as the thermo-dynamic coupling of two different thermo-dynamic cycles: one that operates at high temperature and another at low temperature. Residual heat of the high cycle is used as a contribution of heat to the low temperature cycle. The most frequent combined cycles are combined gas-steam cycles, i.e.: with an open cycle gas turbine as the high temperature cycle (Brayton) and a steam turbine cycle (Rankine) as the low temperature cycle. The fluids employed are water and air due to its abundance, simple replacement and easy operation. 23
  24. 24. Distributed Generation in Spain This technology presents similar characteristics of large size generator stations. They do not present problems with harmonics or flicker and can be perfectly programmed. Its technical characteristics allow them to operate in isolation mode. The following is a summary chart of this technology (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Combined cycle Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Mainly natural gas Cogeneration ** Size (MW): > 20 Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI) %: 40-60 Island mode *** Emissions (kg/MWh)i: CO2 320-400 Demand mon *** NOx 0.05-0.40 Ancillary services *** SO2 Negligible Black start *** CO 0.02-0.45 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: 90-98 Harmonics *** Surface (m2/kW): Flicker *** Cost of investment (€/kW): 350-700 Remarks: It is a mature O&M (cent/kWh): 0.2-0.5 generation technology LEC (cent/kwh)ii: 4.7 (2.9-6.4) LEC (pts/kwh)ii: 7.8 (4.8-10.6) i: Emission symbols have not been included as this technology has been considered the reference for comparing other technologies. ii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. *** Very good ** Good * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.4.1 Characteristics and properties of combined cycles 2.2.5 Alternative motors Alternative motors are the ones that typically have been called internal combustion engines. 24
  25. 25. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.5.1 Internal combustion engine This is the most used technology, with a broad range of powers. Its main use is as support in the event of a blackout. Its primary advantage is its rapid response, and the disadvantages are high noise levels, high cost of operation and maintenance and high NOx emissions. There are two types of engines, natural gas and diesel engines. The energy efficiency of these engines is around 30-45%, with expectations of reaching 50% in 2010. The following table summarizes the most important characteristics (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Alternative motors Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Biomass (can also Cogeneration ** use natural gas, diesel, SUW, etc.) Size (MW): 0.05-5 Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI i) %: 30-45 Island mode *** Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 590-800 Demand mon *** NOx 4.5-18.6 Ancillary services *** SO2 0.18-1.36 Black start *** CO 0.18-4 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: 90-95 Harmonics ** Start-up time (s): 10 Flicker ** Surface (m2/kW): 0.003-0.03 Remarks: This type of technology Cost of investment (€/kW): 350-550 has high levels of emissions and O&M (cent/kWh): 1-1.5 noise. It is a mature technology LEC (cent/kwh)ii: 10.3 (4.7-19.1) LEC (pts/kwh)ii: 17.1 (7.7-31.8) i: PCI (Lower Calorific Value): Heat produced during combustion without including heat from water steam generated during combustion and released into the atmosphere through the exhaust conduit. ii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. 25
  26. 26. Distributed Generation in Spain Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.5.2 Characteristics and properties of alternative 2.2.6 Mini-hydraulics A mini-hydraulic generator is a turbine connected to an electricity generator and all the necessary structures such as channels and dams to regulate river flow. This technology turns kinetic energy from water into electricity. Kinetic energy depends on volume and the height difference between the upper level of water in the dam and the turbine level. The energy performance of this technology is around 80%. There are three types of mini hydraulic generation technologies: • Flowing (little height difference, much volume, Franklin turbines and little possibility of regulating output power). • Medium height • High height (high difference in height, little volume easily regulated and Pelton turbines). A hydraulic plant supports fast start-up, which turns it into a technology suitable to adapt to demand variations. In addition, the possibility of installing pump groups in order to increase water during periods of low electricity price periods to later turbine it during high price periods, offers a weapon against the price risk. Mini hydraulics Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Water Cogeneration ◊◊◊ Size (MW): 0.1-10 Dispatch ◊◊ Efficiency (PCI) %: 75-0’ Island mode ◊◊◊ Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 0 Demand mon ◊◊◊ NOx 0 Ancillary services ◊◊◊ SO2 0 Black start ◊i CO 0 Unfavourable aspects Equivalent hours (j): 2,500-3,500 Harmonics ◊ Surface (m2/kW)ii: 1-1,000 Flicker ◊ Cost of investment (€/kW): 1,500-4,000 Remarks: Its growth potential is O&M (cent/kWh): 0.8-1.9 limited as most jumps are already LEC (cent/kwh)iii: 8.7 (4.0-15.5) being used. It is a mature LEC (pts/kwh)iii: 14.5 (6.7-25.8) technology. 26
  27. 27. Distributed Generation in Spain i: Depends on the availability of a hydraulic resource at the time. ii: Includes the area of the entire facility. Source: (Eberhard et al, 2000). iii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.6.1 Characteristics and properties of Mini-hydraulics 2.2.7 Wind farms Technology that uses wind farm energy and transforms it into electricity. The power of these units is currently ranges from 30 kW to more than 2MW. It is a relatively mature technology, reaching reliability levels of around 97%. Figure 2.2.7.1 Wind farms There are two mechanical blade energy transformation technologies; one based on a synchronous generator and the other with an asynchronous generator. The current trend focuses on asynchronous generators controlled by pulse converters (double feed generators). This allows regulating output voltage by modifying consumption or generation of reactive energy. This option is very useful when the generator set is connected to weak grids, where a strong power injection can increase voltage at the connection point to values above tolerable ranges. In addition, the construction of blades with the possibility of varying their angle allows regulating the generated active power. 27
  28. 28. Distributed Generation in Spain The main disadvantage of this technology is the difficulty of predicting generated power, due to “unforeseeable” variations in wind. Another problem is known as the flicker effect due to the passing of the blades in front of the post that supports the generator, which causes small and repetitive voltage variations. Below is the summary table (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Wind farms Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Wind Cogeneration ◊◊◊ Size (MW)i: >5 Dispatch ◊◊◊ Efficiency (PCI) %: 15-30 Island mode ◊◊◊ Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 0 Demand mon ◊◊◊ NOx 0 Ancillary services ◊◊ SO2 0 Black start ◊◊◊ CO 0 Unfavourable aspects Equivalent hours (h): 2,000-2,500 Harmonics ◊◊ Coverage surface (m2/kW): 1.9-2.6 Flicker ◊◊ Surface (m2/kW)ii: 60-330 Remarks: New wind farm Cost of investment (€/kW): 750-1,500 technologies try to minimize O&M (cent/kWh): 1.5-2 some of the most unfavourable LEC (cent/kwh)iii: 5.8 (3.6-8.5) aspects. This technology has LEC (pts/kwh)iii: 9.6 (6.0-14.2) reached a considerable level of maturity but can still develop further. i: Size refers to wind farms and not individual generators ii: Includes the area of the entire facility. Source: (Eberhard et al, 2000). iii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.7.2 Characteristics and properties of Wind farm stations 2.2.8 Solar Solar Photovoltaic: Technology that turns solar energy into electricity. The energy performance achieved today is around 25%. 28
  29. 29. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.8.1 Photovoltaic panels Photovoltaic generation systems can be divided into three segments: • Isolated operation: Isolated operation is used in areas that do not have access to the distribution network and require the use of batteries and a load regulator. • Hybrid operation involves connecting photovoltaic panels in parallel with another source of generation, such as a diesel engine or a wind farm generator. • Connected in parallel with the grid: consumption feeds either from photovoltaic panels or the grid, switching through an inverter. This solution offers the advantage of not requiring a battery or load regulator, which reduces losses and the required investment. It is a highly intensive technology in terms of capital (cost of 5000-7000 euros/kW) but does not require any fuels. The advantages are that it does not require maintenance and can feed consumptions away from distribution networks. The following is a summary chart with the most important characteristics (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Solar photovoltaic Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Solar radiation Cogeneration ◊◊◊ Size (MW)i: 1-500 Dispatch ◊◊◊ Efficiency (PCI) %: 10-20 Island mode ◊◊◊ Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 0 Demand mon ◊◊◊ NOx 0 Ancillary services ◊◊◊ SO2 0 Black start ◊◊◊ CO 0 Unfavourable aspects Equivalent hours (h): 1,100-1,500 Harmonics ◊◊ 29
  30. 30. Distributed Generation in Spain Surface (m2/kW): 7.5-20 Flicker ◊◊ Cost of investment (€/kW): 5,000-7,000 Remarks: Some of these aspects O&M (cent/kWh): 40-50 can be improved if combined LEC (cent/kwh)i: 37.4 (26.9-51.7) with storage systems. It is a LEC (pts/kwh)i: 62.2 (44.8-86.0) technology that is still under development. i: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.8.2 Characteristics and properties of photovoltaic power Solar heat: This technology is still under development but represents an interesting alternative. The basic concept of this technology is that the heat obtained by concentrating solar radiation is used to heat a fluid and then produce steam suitable for use in a conventional steam turbine. Generally, the fluids used are molten salts as they support higher operating temperatures. There are mainly three types of electricity generation using solar heat technology: • Cylinder-parabolic collectors: This scheme involves cylindrical-parabolic mirrors to concentrate solar radiation in a tube located along the core of the collector. The tube contains the fluid to be heated and can reach temperatures close to 400ºC. Figure 3 shows a diagram of this kind of collector. The fluid that is heated is taken to heat exchanges to produce steam and drive the turbine. These systems are provided with a movement mechanism that allows tracking the sun in order to improve efficiency. This movement can be on one axis (vertical or horizontal) or both. 30
  31. 31. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.8.3 Parabolic cylinder collectors A possible scheme of production with steam turbine would be: Figure 2.2.8.4 Production diagram of solar station with steam turbine • Central tower or heliostats: This scheme involves a large number of flat mirrors, known as heliostats, to concentrate solar radiation in a central receiver located in the upper part of 31
  32. 32. Distributed Generation in Spain the tower. The number of mirrors involved is normally hundreds or even thousands. The mirrors tend to be large in size in order to minimize the number of solar radiation directing and tracking mechanisms. Two tanks are used to store the fluid: one “cold” and another “hot”. The “cold” tank stores the fluid at around 300ºC, which is pumped to the central receiver where it reaches temperatures of around 560ºC. From there it is pumped to the “hot” tank, where it is stored for subsequent use in steam production. The current designs offer storage times between 3 to 13 hours, reaching an annual availability of up to 65%. The following shows a diagram of the process and a photo of a solar station with central tower and heliostats: Figure 2.2.8.5 Solar tower and heliostats 32
  33. 33. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.8.6 Diagram of a solar station production process with a tower and heliostats • Parabolic disks: This scheme involves mirrors in the form of parabolic dishes to concentrate solar radiation in a receiver located in the focus of the mirror. The fluid in the receiver is heated to around 750ºC and can be used to generate steam or, in the event of a gas, used directly in a Stirling type motor located in the receiver. The Stirling motor is similar in operation to a two-stroke internal combustion engine but the fundamental difference is that the heat source is external. The parabolic dish system is the one that provides greatest concentration of solar radiation due to its two dimensional parabolic section. This enables reaching greater operating temperatures and therefore greater efficiency. Figure 2.2.8.7 Parabolic collectors 33
  34. 34. Distributed Generation in Spain The following is a summary chart with the most important characteristics (Mendez Quezada, 2005): Solar heat Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Solar radiation Cogeneration ◊◊ Size (MW)i: 5-100 Dispatch ** Efficiency (PCI) %: 10-20 Island mode ** Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 0 Demand mon ** NOx 0 Ancillary services ** SO2 0 Black start ◊ CO 0 Unfavourable aspects Equivalent hours (h): 2,000-2,500 Harmonics ** Surface (m2/kW): 7.5-15 Flicker ** Cost of investment (€/kW): 2,500-3,800 Remarks: A technology in O&M (cent/kWh): 2 research phase. Requires large LEC (cent/kwh)i: 13.2 (9.6-17.7) areas of land install the mirrors. LEC (pts/kwh)i: 22.0 (16.0-29.5) i: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.8.8 Characteristics and properties of solar heat 2.2.9 Fuel cells Device capable of converting chemical energy directly into electricity. They are based on a chemical reaction based on Hydrogen and Oxygen to generate water, heat and electricity. Its operation is similar to a conventional battery, with two electrodes and an electrolyte that conducts ions. Fuel (hydrogen) reaches the anode, where it loses, thanks to the help of a catalyst that reacts with the electrode, an electron. Hence the resulting H+ ion starts its migration through the electrolyte to the cathode, where it combines with oxygen to form water and generate heat in an exothermic reaction. The advantages are great energy efficiency (35-50%), no contribution to the greenhouse effect and allowing greater safety of supply. 34
  35. 35. Distributed Generation in Spain Contrary to the batteries, where the “fuel” is internal (and therefore need to be recharged periodically), the cell is fed from an external source. In this sense the fuel cell can operate in continuous and uninterrupted mode. The basic fuel for the cell is hydrogen. Normally some kind of fossil fuel is converted in order to contribute this fuel, which is generally natural gas. Figure 2.2.9.1 Fuel cells. Operation diagram The main characteristics are: • Anode: fuel electrode, that supplies a common interface for the fuel and electrolyte, promotes the catalytic reaction to oxidize the fuel and drives the electrons from the reaction place to the external circuit, or to a current collection, which in turn drives the electrons to the external circuit. • Cathode: electrode of oxidant, which provides a common interface for the oxygen and electrolyte, catalyzes the reduction reaction and drives the electrons from the external circuit to the place of the oxygen reaction. • Electrolyte: medium to transmission one of the species (cations or anions) that participate in the fuel and oxidant electrode reactions, though it must be conductive in order to avoid short-circuits in the system. On the other part, it plays an important role in the separation of fuel and oxidizer 35
  36. 36. Distributed Generation in Spain gases, which is achieved through the retention of the electrolyte in the pores of a matrix. The capillarity force of the electrolyte within the pores allows the matrix to separate gases even under differential pressure situations. • Two pole plate: Its function is to separate individual cells and connect them in sequence, hence creating the fuel cell. They include gas channels to introduce reacting gases in the porous electrodes and to extract the resulting and inert gases. The basic unit of a cell can generate a current that is proportional to the surface of electrodes and “standard” voltage of 1.2V. These basic units are piled in order to find the desired levels of voltage and power and form what is called a “stack”. There are different types of cells, which vary depending on the nature of the electrolyte being used: • Direct Methanol Cells: The fuel used is a mixture of methanol and water, not explosive and of easy storage. The oxygen required for its operation is drawn from the atmosphere, which enters the cell through diffusion and convection processes. They are characterized by the ability to quickly change their output power, adapting to changes in demand. • Liquid oxygen cells: The electrolyte is a porous solid consisting of steel oxides. It operates at temperatures around 900-1000 ºC. They can be used in high power applications, including large scale power generation stations. Several tests have been performed with 125kW prototypes. The electrical efficiency can reach up to 60%. • Molten carbonate cells: the electrolyte is a mixture of lithium carbonates, sodium and potassium, in a ceramic matrix. It operates at a temperature range of 650-700 ºC, temperatures that create a molten conductive mixture suitable for the carbonated ions. They offer high fuel-electricity efficiencies and the possibility of using carbon-based fuels. • Phosphoric acid cells: It uses highly concentrated (98%) phosphoric acid (HPO3) as its electrolyte, held in a carbon silicon matrix. It operates at a temperature between 150-200 ºC, range in which the ionic conductivity of the phosphoric acid works best. It is the most developed cell on a commercial level and is used in multiple applications such as clinics, hospitals and hotels. Phosphoric acid fuel cells generate electricity with 36
  37. 37. Distributed Generation in Spain efficiency greater than 40% and close to 85%; steam produced can be used in cogeneration. Today, the cost of a commercial fuel cell is around 1600-3500 euros/kW. In the case of hydrogen based cells, the need to establish an infrastructure to handle it, although technically possible, creates added difficulties to its cost. Cells will only become economically viable when the hydrogen production becomes cheaper. Fuel cells Characteristics Favourable aspects Fuel: Hydrogen, natural Cogeneration ***i gas, propane Size (MW)i: 20kW-2MW Dispatch *** Efficiency (PCI) %: 30-50 Island mode ** Emissions (kg/MWh): CO2 360-630 Demand mon ** NOx < to 0.023 Ancillary services ◊◊ SO2 0 Black start ◊◊ CO 0.005-0.055 Unfavourable aspects Availability %: Greater than 95 Harmonics ◊◊ii Start-up time: 3-48 h Flicker ◊ Surface (m2/kW): 0.06-0.11 Remarks: A technology in Cost of investment (€/kW): 1,600-3,500 research phase. Requires large O&M (cent/kWh): 1.5-2 areas of land install the mirrors. LEC (cent/kwh)iii: 8.5 (6.0-12.1) LEC (pts/kwh)iii: 14.2 (10.0-20.1) i: Depends on fuel cell type. ii: New types of investors tend to minimize this problem. iii: The first value is the average value calculated with availability averages, cost of installation, O&M, price of fuel and efficiency. The values between brackets are values calculated for the entire variation range. Worse that gas combined cycle *** Very good Approximately the same as gas combined cycle ** Good Better than gas combined cycle * Normal ◊◊ Poor ◊◊◊ Very poor Figure 2.2.9.2 Characteristics and properties of fuel cells 2.2.10 Flywheels An emerging technology with little practical use today is the flywheel. The objective of this kind of technology involves providing an amount of energy during a relatively short period of time; they could play a very important role in the primary regulation of frequency-power control. The basic layout of a flywheel would be: 37
  38. 38. Distributed Generation in Spain Figure 2.2.10.1 Flywheels The operation diagram of the flywheel is as follows: Figure 2.2.10.2 Operation diagram of a flywheel The application uses of this technology could be: For transmission: a) Voltage support - Important voltage drops (more than one train passing through a point on the grid) - may generate excessive transmission losses (RI2) - Energy storage system suitably sized and placed can overcome these problems - when trains accelerate, the storage system provides energy to the grid (increase grid voltage and reducing demand) - During low demand periods, the storage system is recharged b) Regenerative braking 38
  39. 39. Distributed Generation in Spain - Brake energy is returned to the grid - If there is no load that absorbs this energy, for example, a train accelerating, or an energy storage system, this energy is wasted - A system with a suitably sized flywheel is capable of absorbing and returning system energy as required. Example: 200kW, 14MJ (4 kWhr) c) Additional power - As the systems are expanded, new technologies are developed and the number of passengers increase, the grid at the substation may need to be updated. - Increasing an existing substation may not be possible - The compact and modular nature of a flywheel offers a flexible alternative to these matters. d) Maintenance programs - Maintenance routines and the need to repair substations and related equipment has become a difficult task in congested metro systems: Increase in voyages and demand for shorter journeys makes it difficult to isolate substations while providing suitable voltage and operation of the system. - Under these situations, and as a temporary solution, a storage system based on flywheels enables performing maintenance work, while the flywheel maintains the required voltage level in the grid. For a suitable power management: a) Normalize consumption - During low consumption periods, energy is stored in flywheels. - At peak times, power is returned to the grid. b) Result - Reduction of losses in transmission and distribution - Greater maximization of an existing substation. Lower consumption peaks. 39
  40. 40. Distributed Generation in Spain 3. Installed power and distributed generation production in Spain 40
  41. 41. Distributed Generation in Spain 3. Installed power and distributed generation in Spain This section describes the evolution of installed distributed generation power in Spain, as per UNESA data, production based on data provided by CNE and a possible estimate for 2050 of renewable energy that could be installed on the peninsula. 3.1. Installed power of distributed generation First, we shall show the installed power since 1990 to 2004, according to data provided by UNESA, considering the following types of technology: Cogeneration, Wind farm, Hydraulic, Waste, Biomass, Waste treatment and Solar. AÑO / COGENERACIÓN EÓLICA HIDRÁULICA RESIDUOS BIOMASA TRAT.RESIDUOS SOLAR Total P.Instalada (MW) 1990 356 2 640 43 1.042 1991 597 3 754 52 1 1.407 1992 648 33 796 82 24 1.582 1993 1.150 34 856 87 24 2.151 1994 1.441 41 940 158 26 1,0 2.605 1995 1.759 98 998 201 40 1,0 3.097 1996 2.350 227 1.058 247 40 1,0 3.922 1997 2.728 420 1.107 247 41 1,0 4.543 1998 3.734 884 1.240 292 68 1,1 6.218 1999 4.256 1.674 1.377 311 77 29 1,1 7.726 2000 5.015 2.289 1.407 294 127 82 1,4 9.213 2001 5.429 3.501 1.499 404 197 159 3,2 11.190 2002 5.663 5.059 1.532 416 321 327 6,8 13.317 2003 5.745 6.320 1.602 423 421 423 10,8 14.933 2004 5.869 8.203 1.641 540 433 468 21,1 17.154 Table 3.1.1 Installed power of the various DG technologies 41
  42. 42. Distributed Generation in Spain Graphically: Evolucion de la potencia instalada en el régimen especial en España 18.000 17.154 16.000 14.933 14.000 13.317 12.000 11.190 10.000 9.213 MW 7.726 8.000 6.218 6.000 4.543 3.922 4.000 3.097 2.605 2.151 1.407 1.582 2.000 1.042 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 COGENERACIÓN HIDRÁULICA RESIDUOS EÓLICA BIOMASA TRAT.RESIDUOS SOLAR Total Figure 3.1.1 Evolution of installed power under special regime in Spain As can be seen, the DG technologies that have increased most in Spain is wind farm energy, reaching 9300MW of installed power at the end of 2005. Biomass is second although its growth has stabilized in recent years. According to new economic incentives, it seems that solar energy will experience an important increase in upcoming years. Considering the regulatory division in RD 436/2004, the following summary table displays the installed power in kW in each Spanish province updated as at 1-10- 2005: 42
  43. 43. Distributed Generation in Spain Table 3.1.2 Installed DG power by province according to classification in RD 436/2004 43
  44. 44. Distributed Generation in Spain Grouping the installed power by kW by autonomous communities, you get: Potencia instalada (kW) Andalucía 942.602 Aragón 1.557.989 Asturias 280.932 Baleares 9.835 Canarias 47.306 Cantabria 54.653 Castilla La Mancha 1.997.908 Castilla y León 1.844.812 Cataluña 510.287 Comunidad Valenciana 381.723 Extremadura 20.632 Galicia 2.250.821 la Rioja 461.416 Madrid 244.494 Navarra 868.602 País Vasco 286.748 Región de Murcia 249.538 Total 12.010.299 Table 3.1.3 Installed DG power by autonomous communities Potencia ins talada por comunidad autónoma Región de Murcia Navarra 2,1% Andalucía País Vasco Aragón 7,2% 7,8% Asturias Madrid 2,4% 13,0% 2,3% la Rioja 2,0% 3,8% Baleares 0,1% Galicia Canarias 18,7% 0,4% Cantabria 0,5% Extremadura 0,2% Castilla y León Castilla La Mancha Comunidad Valenciana 15,4% 16,6% Cataluña 3,2% 4,2% Figure 3.1.2 Installed DG power by autonomous communities 44
  45. 45. Distributed Generation in Spain The autonomous community with greatest amount of installed power under special regime is Galicia with 18.7%, followed by Castilla La Mancha 16.6%, Castilla & Leon 15.4% and Aragon 13%. The previous autonomous communities present high installed power levels thanks to wind farm generation, which is the technology that experienced most increase. Grouped by category and autonomous community: Potencia instalada (kW) Grupo a Grupo b Grupo c grupo d y (%) Andalucía 39.174 4,5% 536.788 5,9% 22.896 13,7% 343.744 19,2% Aragón 25.667 2,9% 1.364.359 14,9% 10.234 6,1% 154.380 8,6% Asturias 12.888 1,5% 236.561 2,6% 23.440 14,0% 8.043 0,5% Baleares 6.094 0,7% 3.741 0,0% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% Canarias 8.648 1,0% 38.658 0,4% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% Cantabria 0 0,0% 51.653 0,6% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% Castilla La Mancha 71.713 8,2% 1.766.545 19,3% 0 0,0% 159.645 8,9% Castilla y León 55.145 6,3% 1.484.098 16,2% 0 0,0% 300.739 16,8% Cataluña 115.477 13,3% 173.457 1,9% 5.200 3,1% 216.116 12,1% Comunidad Valenciana 192.124 22,0% 57.411 0,6% 38.839 23,2% 93.349 5,2% Extremadura 0 0,0% 9.001 0,1% 0 0,0% 11.631 0,7% Galicia 100.656 11,6% 1.915.201 20,9% 66.883 39,9% 142.482 8,0% la Rioja 6.716 0,8% 426.119 4,7% 0 0,0% 28.581 1,6% Madrid 128.188 14,7% 39.077 0,4% 0 0,0% 77.228 4,3% Navarra 33.047 3,8% 810.653 8,9% 0 0,0% 23.346 1,3% País Vasco 66.597 7,6% 120.458 1,3% 0 0,0% 99.445 5,6% Región de Murcia 9.250 1,1% 113.232 1,2% 0 0,0% 127.056 7,1% Total 871.384 100% 9.147.013 100% 167.492 100% 1.785.785 100% Table 3.1.4 Installed DG power by autonomous communities as per RD 436/2004 Graphically: 45
  46. 46. Distributed Generation in Spain Potencia instalada por comunidad autónoma Grupo a Asturias 1,5% Baleares Aragón 0,7% Andalucía 2,9% Región de Murcia 4,5% 1,1% Canarias País Vasco 1,0% 7,6% Cantabria Navarra 3,8% 0,0% Castilla La Mancha Madrid 8,2% 14,7% Castilla y León la Rioja 6,3% 0,8% Comunidad Cataluña Galicia Extremadura Valenciana 13,3% 11,6% 0,0% 22,0% Figure 3.1.3 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group A Potencia instalada por comunidad autónoma Grupo b Región de Murcia 1,2% País Vasco Andalucía Baleares 5,9% Asturias Navarra 1,3% 0,0% Madrid 8,9% Aragón 2,6% 0,4% 14,9% Canarias 0,4% la Rioja 4,7% Cantabria 0,6% Galicia 20,9% Castilla La Mancha Comunidad 19,3% Castilla y León Valenciana Extremadura Cataluña 16,2% 0,6% 0,1% 1,9% Figure 3.1.4 Installed DG power by autonomous communities. Group B 46

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