Metaphor presentation 2014


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Background information on the various types and function of metaphor in literature and life. We use this presentation before we create large metaphor matrix for the characters of Julius Caesar and where they fit in Dante's Inferno.

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Metaphor presentation 2014

  1. 1. A metaphor is a meaty rib you can’t stop eating.
  2. 2. Language isMetaphor
  3. 3. Ferdinand de Saussure [semiotics] A sign is (dyadic) Signifier -------------- Signified
  4. 4. Charles Sanders Peirce semiotic elements= triadic
  5. 5. Jacques Lacan le non du père (the no of the father) le nom du père (the name of the father) What happens when we don’t know the true “nature” of our father: (Father= person, laws, mores, systems etc…)
  6. 6. Plato’s concept of IDEA:Idea:idea BED:Bed:bed
  7. 7. “The Treachery of Images” The Following Two Images Are By Scott McCloud from Understanding Comics
  8. 8. Aristotle’s view of a word or idea deals with schemaor classification •Boy •Man •Teacher •Professor Every word has a denotative (dictionary) and connotative (associative) role. When we describe one thing in terms of another we create a metaphor.
  9. 9. Metaphor is the application to one thing of the name belonging to another. We may apply (a) the name of a genus to one of its species, or (b) the name of one species to its genus, or (c) the name of one species to another of the same genus, or (d) the transfer may be based on a proportion Aristotle- Poetics (335 B.C.)
  10. 10. Metaphor is a strategy in which a word or expression is shifted from its normal uses to a context where it evokes new meaning.
  11. 11. Context An artist must be aware of his audience otherwise a metaphor may go unnoticed or misunderstood Tone: a metaphor can be funny, insightful, objective, or serious.
  12. 12. Mr. Herzfeld is Benson from The Regular Show
  13. 13. But Mr. T. WHOis Benson?
  14. 14. Like Benson on The Regular Show, Mr. Herzfeld is a manager. well he’s more than that, but for this experiment let’s focus on one aspect of his job
  15. 15. Mr. Herzfeld Manager Tenor Vehicle •Disciplined •Vigilant •Cautious •Forceful •Organizes •Expectations
  16. 16. Cop Car School Bus Clown Car Hotwheel Tenor Vehicle •? •? •? •?
  17. 17. Purpose: there are different purposes for metaphors: Pragmatic-memetic Aesthetic-vivid/interesting Cognitive-different/delayed Rhetorical-persuasive
  18. 18. Pragmatic: conveying meanings concisely = At FVHS Mr. Herzfeld is Benson: The Boss and adult figure in Regular Show
  19. 19. Aesthetic: making expressions more vivid or interesting = Often at FVHS Mr. Herzfeld is Batman trying to defuse a bomb.
  20. 20. Cognitive: providing words to describe things that have no literal name or rendering complex abstractions easy to understand through concrete analogies. OR creating new meanings, forestalling meaning or forcing meaning to be seen in the context of the whole piece of artwork.
  21. 21. Since seniors graduate and are replaced every year by thirteen and fourteen year old freshmen, Mr. Herzfeld’s job to turn kids into well intentioned adults is truly Sisyphean. =
  22. 22. Mr. Herzfeld is a well organized box of apples. (This is another example of a cognitive metaphor) =
  23. 23. Theoretical Critic Forest Thompson: “the worst disservice a critic can do to poetry is to understand it too soon.” Theoretical Critic Shklovsky says “the purpose of new metaphors is not to create meaning, but to renew perception by “defamiliarizing” the world. Cleanth Brooks- The essential structure of a poem is resembles that of architecture or painting: it is a pattern of resolved stresses. from “The Heresy of Paraphrase.”
  24. 24. I am the Walrus- The Beatles I am he as you are he as you are me and we are all together. See how they run like pigs from a gun, see how they fly. I'm crying. Sitting on a cornflake, waiting for the van to come. Corporation T-shirt, stupid bloody Tuesday. Man, you been a naughty boy, you let your face grow long. I am the eggman, they are the eggmen. I am the walrus, goo goo g'joob.
  25. 25. An entire work can be a metaphor
  26. 26. Kneeling at the Pipes Princely cockroach, inheritor, I used to stain the kitchen wall with your brothers, flood you right down the basin. I squashed you underfoot, making faces. I repent. I am relieved to hear somebody will survive our noises. Thoughtlessly I judged you dirty while dropping poisons and freeways and bombs on the melted landscape. I want to bribe you to memorize certain poems. My generation too craves posterity. Accept this dish of well aged meat. In the warrens of our rotting citites where those small eggs round as earth wait, spread the Word. Marge Piercy
  27. 27. Metaphors can be rhetorical in nature- they can persuade, they can move an audience to think in a new or particular way.
  28. 28. Persuasive Metaphor: A gumball machine doesn’t work until you put a coin in it. Like Benson, Mr. Herzfeld’s kind heart is what drives his every action. =
  29. 29. The world of politics is filledwith persuasive metaphor. Let’s get familiar with some background/context first…
  30. 30. 2008 Presidential Race: Obama • Young • Intellectual • Inexperienced • Cultured • Sophisticated • Articulate
  31. 31. Joe Biden • Older • Wiser • Brash • Talkative • Old School • Acceptable • 2nd fiddle
  32. 32. P. Candidate John McCain • Maverick • Too Old • Out of Touch • Independent • Brave • Experienced • Surprising
  33. 33. VP Candidate Sarah Palin • Inexperienced • Different • Sassy • Non-intellectual • Out of her league • Motherly • Independent • Fighter
  34. 34. ACTIVITY: Now you try it. Make a metaphor matrix with your choice of one of the following: ● Local Food Sources: Restaurants, Home, Vending Machines, Cafeteria etc…. ● Types of Candy ● Musical Artists ● Animals or Insects (Famous or otherwise) ● Cartoon or Comic Characters