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Kuliah biogas

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Kuliah biogas

  1. 1. Renewable ResourcesRenewable Resources BiogasBiogas The All NaturalThe All Natural GasGas
  2. 2. I. Where is biogas used:I. Where is biogas used:  Biogas has been used all over theBiogas has been used all over the world.world.  It is primarily used by farmers and inIt is primarily used by farmers and in rural areas to reduce costs of citiesrural areas to reduce costs of cities powering stationspowering stations  Becoming more popular in higherBecoming more popular in higher populated areas.populated areas.
  3. 3. II. What is the raw materialII. What is the raw material for producing biogasfor producing biogas?? Biodegradable Waste Materials:Biodegradable Waste Materials:  Poultry ManurePoultry Manure  Human ManureHuman Manure  Poultry Offal (the blood, guts and gore)Poultry Offal (the blood, guts and gore)  Commercial Food Waste StreamsCommercial Food Waste Streams  Onions, green beans, potatoes, cookingOnions, green beans, potatoes, cooking oils, cheese wastes, eggs and grainoils, cheese wastes, eggs and grain
  4. 4.  Fat: 3.5 - 7.5 %Fat: 3.5 - 7.5 %  Protein: 13.7-15.6 %Protein: 13.7-15.6 %  Carbohydrates: 59.9-62.1 %Carbohydrates: 59.9-62.1 %  Cellulose: 14.5-25.0 %Cellulose: 14.5-25.0 %  Hemicellulose: 2.0-19.3 %Hemicellulose: 2.0-19.3 %  Lignin: 6.8- 9.0 %Lignin: 6.8- 9.0 %  Inerts: 16.0-29.0 %Inerts: 16.0-29.0 %  Total ~12% total solids 11% volatile solidsTotal ~12% total solids 11% volatile solids Typical Raw MaterialTypical Raw Material Composition : Cow ManureComposition : Cow Manure
  5. 5. III. What are the technologicalIII. What are the technological limitations of the resource?limitations of the resource?  Supply of raw material: variation of theSupply of raw material: variation of the capacity and the qualitycapacity and the quality  Processing technology: Relatively slowProcessing technology: Relatively slow process and limited productivity. Could notprocess and limited productivity. Could not be treated as usual production processbe treated as usual production process (automation, etc.)(automation, etc.)  Require future research to improve theRequire future research to improve the technology, that can substitute thetechnology, that can substitute the conventional fuel.conventional fuel.
  6. 6. Biochemical Process: Anaerobic Digestion  Biological degradation of organic volatile solids in theBiological degradation of organic volatile solids in the absence of oxygen:absence of oxygen: 1. Hydrolysis1. Hydrolysis 2. Fermentation2. Fermentation 3. Acetogenesis3. Acetogenesis 4. Methanogenesis4. Methanogenesis  Products of anaerobic digestion include water,Products of anaerobic digestion include water, undigested volatile solids, inert materials and biogasundigested volatile solids, inert materials and biogas IV. Biogas Production
  7. 7. 4.1. Anaerobic Digestion Process (1)4.1. Anaerobic Digestion Process (1)  the raw organic residue (raw sewage, manure and other suchthe raw organic residue (raw sewage, manure and other such resources) that is required in this process is converted to itresources) that is required in this process is converted to it usable energy state by bacteria breaking down methaneusable energy state by bacteria breaking down methane andand releasing COreleasing CO22, which is the energy source sought after in this, which is the energy source sought after in this conversion.conversion. Since it is a cycling of carbon so it isn’t actuallySince it is a cycling of carbon so it isn’t actually released into the atmosphere.released into the atmosphere.  happens though a series of chemical breakdownhappens though a series of chemical breakdown (see chart on(see chart on next slide)next slide)  required bacteria in this process, the raw material must berequired bacteria in this process, the raw material must be belowbelow a temperaturea temperature ofof 6060°°cc oror 140140°°FF . This helps the material. This helps the material to be broken downto be broken down  process is also naturally occurring as well.process is also naturally occurring as well.
  8. 8. Anaerobic Digestion Process (2)Anaerobic Digestion Process (2)
  9. 9. Anaerobic Digestion Process (3)Anaerobic Digestion Process (3)
  10. 10. 4.2. Typical Anaerobic Digestion Process (Complete Mix)
  11. 11. Waste Manure De- Watering De- Watering Engine / Generator Set Engine / Generator Set CAPTURED WASTE HEAT •Methane captured carbon credits •Slightly reduced N • P – 40-60% •Useable for on-farm fertilizer •Bedding (on-farm) - or - •Compost / Organic Fertilizer Anaero bic Digeste r Anaerobic Digester Filtrate Solids •Peak production •Long-term contract •‘Green Tag’ premium ELECTRICITYBIOGAS •NPK mineralized •Odor reduced •Pathogens, weed seeds controlled DIGESTED MANURE •Farm heat $ offsets •Farm refrigeration $ offsets Farm UseFarm Use CAPTURING ADDED VALUE 4.3. Waste-to-Energy System Characteristics
  12. 12.  Covered Lagoons: 0.5 -3.0% total solidsCovered Lagoons: 0.5 -3.0% total solids  Complete Mix: 3-10% total solidsComplete Mix: 3-10% total solids  Plug Flow: 10-13% total solidsPlug Flow: 10-13% total solids  Temperature Regimes:Temperature Regimes:  Psychrophilic:Psychrophilic: 50- 77 F50- 77 F  Mesophylic: 77-104 FMesophylic: 77-104 F  Thermophilic: 120-140 FThermophilic: 120-140 F 4.4. Types of Digesters4.4. Types of Digesters
  13. 13. 0 5000 10000 15000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Time (days) BiogasProduction(ml/l) Thermophilic Mesophilic Psychrophilic 4.5. Digester Temperature Regimes4.5. Digester Temperature Regimes
  14. 14. V.V. Use of Biogas.Use of Biogas. In the Past:In the Past:  it is believed that a form of this gas wasit is believed that a form of this gas was usedused by the Babylonians to heat water.by the Babylonians to heat water.  By 1850 the concept of biogas was startingBy 1850 the concept of biogas was starting to become better understood and in sewageto become better understood and in sewage processing plant was built to create biogas,processing plant was built to create biogas, and this energy was used to illuminateand this energy was used to illuminate streetlights.streetlights.
  15. 15. Present and Future UsePresent and Future Use  Biogas has been used for many purposes, itBiogas has been used for many purposes, it best to used for direct use such as heatingbest to used for direct use such as heating and cooking.and cooking.  It can be used as the fuel for vehicleIt can be used as the fuel for vehicle engines, with higher efficiency and lessengines, with higher efficiency and less pollutants than using gasoline fuel.pollutants than using gasoline fuel.  It may also be used to produce electricityIt may also be used to produce electricity using gas turbine or engine, with less thanusing gas turbine or engine, with less than 30% of the energy of the biogas converted30% of the energy of the biogas converted to electricityto electricity..
  16. 16. VI. How do the production,VI. How do the production, transportation and use of biogastransportation and use of biogas affect the environment:affect the environment:  cleanest and least toxic in the world. machinery required tocleanest and least toxic in the world. machinery required to heat the raw materials is non-polluting, and it is a completelyheat the raw materials is non-polluting, and it is a completely natural processnatural process  Also through manufacturing biogas landfills and sewageAlso through manufacturing biogas landfills and sewage systems become smaller and the process creates an odourlesssystems become smaller and the process creates an odourless gas, and a high nutrient fertilizergas, and a high nutrient fertilizer  in a way the production of this form of gas is better for thein a way the production of this form of gas is better for the environment than not producing it.environment than not producing it.  transportation of biogas is done through trucks similar totransportation of biogas is done through trucks similar to those that transport any other gas.those that transport any other gas.  clean burning and completely natural so it has noclean burning and completely natural so it has no adverse effects on the environment. It also reduces theadverse effects on the environment. It also reduces the amount of methane and carbon dioxide released into theamount of methane and carbon dioxide released into the environment.environment.
  17. 17. Pros and ConsPros and Cons  ProsPros  RenewableRenewable  High nutrient fertilizer producedHigh nutrient fertilizer produced in excess.in excess.  Environment friendly.Environment friendly.  Reduces methane and carbonReduces methane and carbon dioxide release into the air.dioxide release into the air.  Cheap to produce.Cheap to produce.  Many different uses.Many different uses.  Reduces landfill sites, sewageReduces landfill sites, sewage drainage, and farm manure.drainage, and farm manure.  Clean/ quiet fuel for cars andClean/ quiet fuel for cars and trucks.trucks.     ConsCons  Reduced powerReduced power from vehicles.from vehicles.  Extra time requiredExtra time required to produce into produce in comparison to othercomparison to other energy resources.energy resources.   

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