David ShaferITS Systems & PlatformsApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaCITLTech Forum 2008
 In 2011, world’s data will reach 1.80zettabytes 1,800,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytesApril 17, 2008 The University of Iow...
ServiceRequirementsStorageArchitectureCostsApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
1. Capacity2.Performance3. Uptime4.RecoverabilityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
Year 1Year 2Year 3 Current capacity Growth rate Planning horizon Future capacityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
 What infrastructure is needed to supportfuture capacities? What are the incremental capacity steps? Disk Disk enclosu...
 Best Buy, April 2008 Western Digital 1TB SATA: $239.99 ($0.24/GB) Storage Magazine,April 2008April 17, 2008 The Univer...
 IOPS = Input/Output operations Per SecondApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS* Cost/IOPS7200 RPM SerialAT...
 Downtime:Any planned or unplanned period of serviceoutage or severe degradationApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaUpti...
 Hardware/software maintenance Configuration changes Upgrades User error Hardware/software failures DisksApril 17, 2...
A0 Zero protection, neutral performance Lowest cost Usable space = Disk size * # DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of ...
 Data blocks striped across multiple disks Best performance for writes Zero protection from disk failure Usable space ...
 Data mirrored between pairs of disks Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2Example: (1TB * 4) /...
 Data striped across multiple mirrored pairs Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2April 17, 200...
 Data striped across multiple disks with parity Uses less disk space than mirroring Can safely lose 1 disk Usable spac...
 Dual parity calculations Can safely lose 2 disks Usable space = Disk size * [(Disks – 2) / Disks]Example: 1TB * (4/6) ...
 For random workloads: RAID 1, 1+0▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 2 *Write IOPS RAID 5▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 4 *Write IO...
How long will it take to restore?How old is the most recent backup?RTO Recovery Point Objective (RPO) RecoveryTime Objec...
April 17, 2008 The University of IowaRPO, RTO (Time)Cost($)Remote Backups(D2T, D2D)RemoteReplication(Asynchronous,Synchron...
 Capacity Year 1: 1TB Annual growth: 500 GB Year 3 projection: 2TB Performance Year 1: 1000 IOPS Annual growth: 500...
 Recoverability RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Uptime: 99.9% objective (8 hrsdowntime/year)April 17, 2008 The University ...
 Capacity: 2TBApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 2 $325 $650146 GB ...
 Performance: 2000 IOPS, random workloadApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS Drive Count Unit Cost Total C...
April 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 25 $325 $8,125146 GB 10K RPM FC 1...
 Uptime objective: 99.9% (8 hours downtime per year) 2000 IOPS, 3:1 Read/Write ratio RAID 1+0:Total IOPS = 1500 + 2 * ...
 RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Daily off-site snapshot Identical performance requiredApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
 Infrastructure SAN, IP network Overhead Storage controllers Drive enclosures Cabinets, cabling, etc. Storage manag...
 Primary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Secondary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Total: $13,450 f...
 Where are the single points of failure? What maintenance operations causedowntime? Software updates Hardware upgrades...
 What are your service level objectives? Recovery Point, RecoveryTime, Performance,UptimeApril 17, 2008 The University o...
David ShaferEnterprise Storage ManagerITS Systems & Platforms,The University of Iowadavid-shafer@uiowa.eduApril 17, 2008 T...
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Can You Afford Cheap Storage?

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Can You Afford Cheap Storage?

  1. 1. David ShaferITS Systems & PlatformsApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaCITLTech Forum 2008
  2. 2.  In 2011, world’s data will reach 1.80zettabytes 1,800,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytesApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaIDC Predictions 2008:The Post-Disruption MarketTakes Shape, IDC, Dec 2007
  3. 3. ServiceRequirementsStorageArchitectureCostsApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  4. 4. 1. Capacity2.Performance3. Uptime4.RecoverabilityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  5. 5. Year 1Year 2Year 3 Current capacity Growth rate Planning horizon Future capacityApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  6. 6.  What infrastructure is needed to supportfuture capacities? What are the incremental capacity steps? Disk Disk enclosure Storage controller CabinetApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  7. 7.  Best Buy, April 2008 Western Digital 1TB SATA: $239.99 ($0.24/GB) Storage Magazine,April 2008April 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Price Cost/GB73 GB 15K SCSI $261 $3.58146 GB 10K SCSI $269 $1.841TB SATA $325 $0.32300 GB SAS $631 $2.10
  8. 8.  IOPS = Input/Output operations Per SecondApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS* Cost/IOPS7200 RPM SerialATA 80 $4.0610K RPM Fibre Channel 140 $1.9215K RPM Fibre Channel 180 $1.45EMC CLARiiON Best Practices for Fibre Channel Storage, EMC Corporation,February 2008* Assumes random workload
  9. 9.  Downtime:Any planned or unplanned period of serviceoutage or severe degradationApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaUptime Objective Allowed Downtime PerYear99% 3 days99.9% 8 hours99.99% 52 minutes99.999% 5 minutes
  10. 10.  Hardware/software maintenance Configuration changes Upgrades User error Hardware/software failures DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  11. 11. A0 Zero protection, neutral performance Lowest cost Usable space = Disk size * # DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA1A2A3
  12. 12.  Data blocks striped across multiple disks Best performance for writes Zero protection from disk failure Usable space = Disk size * # DisksApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 BA1 A2 A3
  13. 13.  Data mirrored between pairs of disks Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2Example: (1TB * 4) / 2 = 2TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0A1B0B1B0B1A0A1
  14. 14.  Data striped across multiple mirrored pairs Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = (Disk size * Disks) / 2April 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 BA1 A2 A3A0 BA1 A2 A3B1 B2 B3 B0B1 B2 B0B3
  15. 15.  Data striped across multiple disks with parity Uses less disk space than mirroring Can safely lose 1 disk Usable space = Disk size * [(Disks – 1) / Disks]Example: 1TB * (4/5) = 4TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaApril 17, 2008A0 A1 A2 A3 ApB0 B1 B2 B3Bp
  16. 16.  Dual parity calculations Can safely lose 2 disks Usable space = Disk size * [(Disks – 2) / Disks]Example: 1TB * (4/6) = 4TB usableApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaA0 A1 A2 A3 ApB0 B1 B2 B3BqAqBp
  17. 17.  For random workloads: RAID 1, 1+0▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 2 *Write IOPS RAID 5▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 4 *Write IOPS RAID 6▪ Total IOPS = Read IOPS + 6 *Write IOPSApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaEMC CLARiiON Fibre Channel Storage Fundamentals, EMC Corporation,September 2007
  18. 18. How long will it take to restore?How old is the most recent backup?RTO Recovery Point Objective (RPO) RecoveryTime Objective (RTO)April 17, 2008 The University of IowaRPODisasterTotal Combined LossLastBackupServiceRestored
  19. 19. April 17, 2008 The University of IowaRPO, RTO (Time)Cost($)Remote Backups(D2T, D2D)RemoteReplication(Asynchronous,Synchronous)No Backups,Local Backups
  20. 20.  Capacity Year 1: 1TB Annual growth: 500 GB Year 3 projection: 2TB Performance Year 1: 1000 IOPS Annual growth: 500 IOPS Year 3 projection: 2000 IOPS Random workload, 3:1 Read/Write ratioApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  21. 21.  Recoverability RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Uptime: 99.9% objective (8 hrsdowntime/year)April 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  22. 22.  Capacity: 2TBApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 2 $325 $650146 GB 10K RPM FC 14 $269 $3,76673 GB 15K RPM FC 28 $261 $7,308
  23. 23.  Performance: 2000 IOPS, random workloadApril 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType IOPS Drive Count Unit Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 80 25 $325 $8,125146 GB 10K RPM FC 140 15 $269 $4,03573 GB 15K RPM FC 180 12 $261 $3,132
  24. 24. April 17, 2008 The University of IowaDriveType Drive Count Drive Cost Total Cost1TB SATA 25 $325 $8,125146 GB 10K RPM FC 15 $269 $4,03573 GB 15K RPM FC 28 $261 $7,308
  25. 25.  Uptime objective: 99.9% (8 hours downtime per year) 2000 IOPS, 3:1 Read/Write ratio RAID 1+0:Total IOPS = 1500 + 2 * 500 = 2500 RAID 5:Total IOPS = 1500 + 4 * 500 = 3500 RAID 6:Total IOPS = 1500 + 6 * 500 = 4500April 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  26. 26.  RPO: 24 hours RTO: 24 hours Daily off-site snapshot Identical performance requiredApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  27. 27.  Infrastructure SAN, IP network Overhead Storage controllers Drive enclosures Cabinets, cabling, etc. Storage management software ServicesApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  28. 28.  Primary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Secondary storage▪ (25) 146 GB 10K FC disks: $6,725 Total: $13,450 for 2TB of data ($6.72/GB) Best Buy: $0.24/GBApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  29. 29.  Where are the single points of failure? What maintenance operations causedowntime? Software updates Hardware upgradesApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  30. 30.  What are your service level objectives? Recovery Point, RecoveryTime, Performance,UptimeApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa
  31. 31. David ShaferEnterprise Storage ManagerITS Systems & Platforms,The University of Iowadavid-shafer@uiowa.eduApril 17, 2008 The University of Iowa

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