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Basic geology for Oil Exploration

basic geology principles for ioil exploration

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Basic geology for Oil Exploration

  1. 1. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Basic Geology for Oil Exploration Basic Geology for Oil Exploration
  2. 2. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummarySummary
  3. 3. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Earth componentsEarth components Atmosphere Crust Mantle Core Inner Core
  4. 4. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Earth crust componentsEarth crust components 46,6 27,72 8,13 5 3,63 2,83 2,59 2,09 1,41 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 O Si Al Fe Ca Na K Mg Other %
  5. 5. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Rock- mineral componentsRock- mineral components Silica (SiO2) Quartz Silicates (SiO4 + Al, Ca, Na, K, Mg …) Feldspars Amphiboles and pyroxenes Micas SILICA AND SILICATES
  6. 6. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Calcium Sulphate (Anhydrite, Gypsum) Chlorides (Halite, Sylvite) EVAPORITE MINERALS Sulphides, Oxides, phosphates … OTHERS Calcite (CaCO3) Dolomites (Mg, Ca(CO3)2 ) CARBONATES Rock- mineral conponentsRock- mineral conponents
  7. 7. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Earth crust rocksEarth crust rocks MAGMATIC ROCKS Formed by cooling and crystallization of magma MAGMATIC ROCKS Formed by cooling and crystallization of magma SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Formed in surface by mechanical, chemical or biochemical processes, then buried at moderate depth SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Formed in surface by mechanical, chemical or biochemical processes, then buried at moderate depth METAMORPHIC ROCKS Formed by transformation of magmatic or sedimentary rocks METAMORPHIC ROCKS Formed by transformation of magmatic or sedimentary rocks
  8. 8. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Rock cycleRock cycle MAGMATIC ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Fusion Erosion Magma Cooling and crystallization Solid Transformation SEDIMENTS Diagenesis
  9. 9. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Rocks and hydrocarbonRocks and hydrocarbon Sedimentary rocks are the only family of rocks where hydrocarbons can occur
  10. 10. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga LithologyLithology Standard reprensatation of rock faciès Sandstone Limestone Clay, Shale
  11. 11. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummary
  12. 12. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Sedimentary Rocks Characteristics Sedimentary Rocks Characteristics GRAINS Mineralogy, Granulometry, Sorting, Morphology MATRIX Binder (contemporaneous with sedimentation) Cement (secondary binding material), Mineralogy PORES (Void space) Porosity (percentage of void volum), type of porosity Effective porosity (interconnected voids) Permeability (ability to led a fluid circulate)
  13. 13. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Sedimentary Rocks Classification Sedimentary Rocks Classification CLASTIC (sandstone) CARBONATE (limestones, dolomite) EVAPORITES (salt)
  14. 14. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Clastic RocksClastic Rocks Grain size Lutites Arenites Rudites Sands VeryFine Fine Medium Coarse VeryCoarse Granules Gravel Pebbles Clay Silt Mudstone Siltstone Sandstone Conglomerats LooseConsodilated
  15. 15. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Clastic Rocks formationClastic Rocks formation
  16. 16. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Carbonates RocksCarbonates Rocks J. Guillemot 1988 Limestone Dunham’s Classification
  17. 17. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Carbonates Rocks formationCarbonates Rocks formation Chemical precipitation or Biochemical formation
  18. 18. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Evaporites RocksEvaporites Rocks ContinentalCoastalSubaqueous Sulfate Salt Continental sebkha Coastal sebkha Crystalline, laminated,Turbidites Displacive Halite Chevron Halite
  19. 19. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Evaporites Rocks formationEvaporites Rocks formation
  20. 20. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Sediment diagenesisSediment diagenesis Sediments (loose) Sedimentary Rocks (Consolidated) Pressure, Temperature Water circulation, biological factors Ex : Sand Sandstones Progressive transformation Consequence of burial (subsidence)
  21. 21. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Margin typesMargin types Geological Society of America
  22. 22. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Margin typesMargin types M. T. Halbouty in AAPG mem. 40, 1986
  23. 23. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Sedimentary Bassin exempleSedimentary Bassin exemple A. Perrodon and J. Zabeck, 1990 Paris Bassin
  24. 24. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummary
  25. 25. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Source Rock - DefinitionSource Rock - Definition Rock Containing a few pourcentage of organic matter which eventually be transformed in hydrocarbon
  26. 26. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Kerogen typesKerogen types TYPE I : TYPE II : TYPE III : From lacustrine algae From marine zoo or phyto plancton From continental plants
  27. 27. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Diagenesis Ro = 0.5% Ro = 2.0% Catagenesis 60° to 120° 2 to 4 km depth Metagenesis KK44 KK33 KK22 KK11 KK KK Oil Phase- Out OilOil GasGas OilOil GasGas OilOil GasGas ConCon GasGas GasGas Hydrogen rates Kerogen Onset of Oil Generation Horsfield and Rullkotter, 1994 Burial to Greater and Hotter Depths Source Rocks- MaturationSource Rocks- Maturation
  28. 28. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga During burial, Temperatures and pressures rise. Chemical reactions generates the liquid and gas hydrocarbons found in the source rocks Catagenesis / MetagenesisCatagenesis / Metagenesis CATAGENESIS = generation of oil = OIL WINDOW METAGENESIS = generation of gas = GAS WINDOW
  29. 29. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Organic-rich Source Rock Thermally Matured Organic Matter Oil The Origin of PetroleumThe Origin of Petroleum
  30. 30. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummary
  31. 31. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga A rock in which oil and gas accumulates Two main types : - clastic rocks - carbonate rocks Reservoir rocks - DefinitionReservoir rocks - Definition
  32. 32. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Porosity : space between rock grains in which oil accumulates Permeability : passage-ways between pores through which oil and gas moves Saturation : ratio of fluid volume by pore volume Porosity : space between rock grains in which oil accumulates Permeability : passage-ways between pores through which oil and gas moves Saturation : ratio of fluid volume by pore volume Reservoir rocks - characteristicsReservoir rocks - characteristics
  33. 33. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Good Porosity = Lots of Space for Petroleum Pores (blue) Porosity influencePorosity influence
  34. 34. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Pore-Filling Cement Reduces Quality = Less Space for Petroleum Cement (pink) Cement influenceCement influence
  35. 35. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga A rock through which oil and gas cannot move effectively (Non-permeable rocks) Most common lithologies : Shales Saline rocks Possibly very compact sandstone or limestone (with no porosity) Seal rocks - DefinitionSeal rocks - Definition
  36. 36. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummary
  37. 37. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Secondary MigrationSecondary Migration hydrocarbons move through a permeable rocks toward the earth’surface = SECONDARY MIGRATION
  38. 38. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Migration and trappingMigration and trapping Migrating hydrocarbons may encounter an impermeable layer before reaching earth’surface = TRAPPING (Accumulation)
  39. 39. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Structure visible at the surface Seepage Structural Traps Stratigraphic Traps + + + + + + + + Crystalline basement of substratum of the sedimentary sequence 1 Anticlinal 1 1 1 2 Horst 2 3 Flank if salt or shale dome 3 3 3 3 3 6 Erosional pinch-out 6 6 7 Lens (sand or sandstone) 7 4 Trap against fault 4 5 Sedimentary pinch-out 5 8 Reef 8 TrapsTraps
  40. 40. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga American Petroleum Institute, 1986 Salt Dome Fault Unconformity Pinchout Anticline Hydrocarbon Trap examplesHydrocarbon Trap examples
  41. 41. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga 2480 120° F120° F 350° F350° F GenerationGeneration MigrationMigration Seal RockSeal Rock Reservoir Rock Reservoir Rock OilOil WaterWater Gas Cap Gas Cap EntrapmentEntrapmentAccumulationAccumulation Source Rock Source Rock SynthesisSynthesis
  42. 42. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga • Largest NorthAmerican field • More than 8 billion barrels recoverable • Largest NorthAmerican field • More than 8 billion barrels recoverable Barrow Arch Barrow Arch Sea LevelSea Level 10,00010,000 20,00020,000 30,00030,000 Brooks Range Beaufort Sea Seal ReservoirReservoir KitchenKitchen AnticlinalTrapAnticlinalTrap 120°F unconformityunconformity SouthSouth NorthNorth American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1990 Prudhoe Bay Oil Field (1968)Prudhoe Bay Oil Field (1968) Anticlinal/Unconformity Combination Trap
  43. 43. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga •Largest “lower-48” field •More than 5 billion barrels recoverable •Largest “lower-48” field •More than 5 billion barrels recoverable Sea LevelSea Level 1,0001,000 2,0002,000 3,0003,000 120°F Seal ReservoirReservoir KitchenKitchen UnconformityTrapUnconformityTrap unconformityunconformity WestWest EastEast Seal American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1990 East Texas Oil Field (1930)East Texas Oil Field (1930)
  44. 44. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga In Situ PhasesIn Situ Phases
  45. 45. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga ConclusionConclusion CONDITION FOR HC ACCUMULATION Presence of a source rock which must be mature Presence of reservoir rocks Presence of seals Presence of traps Adequate timing between trap formation and Hydrocarbons generation and formation Adequate timing between trap formation and Hydrocarbons generation and formation
  46. 46. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga GENERALITIES SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SOURCE ROCKS RESERVOIRS AND SEALS HYDROCARBON TRAPS AND MIGRATION PETROLEUM SYSTEM SummarySummary
  47. 47. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Petroleum system - descriptionPetroleum system - description Source Rock (+ organic matter) Maturation (burial) + = Generating Sub-system Reservoir Seal Trap + = Trapping Sub-system Migration
  48. 48. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Petroleum system - timingPetroleum system - timing Depth(z) Temperature T0 T = T0 + g.zDiagenesisCatagenesisMetagenesis Dry Gas Zone 1 - Primary Migration 2 - Secondary Migration 3 - Dismigration Immature Zone Oil Zone Wet Gas Zone
  49. 49. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Teapot Owens Pod of Active Source Rock Just Big Oil Hardy Lucky Immature Source Rock Raven Marginal 250 Ma A A’ Critical MomentCritical Moment Magoon and Dow, 1994 ReservoirRock David Deer-Boar Petroleum SystemDeer-Boar Petroleum System Zero Edge of Reservoir Rock
  50. 50. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Overburden Seal Reservoir Source STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Trap Trap Essential elements of petroleum system POD OF ACTIVE SOURCE ROCK Basem ent Underburden Sedimentary basin-fill GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM 250 MaTrap Petroleum accumulation Top of oil window Bottom of oil window Location for burial history chart A A’ Magoon and Dow, 1994 Critical Moment = Time of Expulsion/MigrationCritical Moment = Time of Expulsion/Migration Petroleum System at Critical MomentPetroleum System at Critical Moment
  51. 51. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Basement GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Present-Day STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Petroleum accumulation Top of oil window Bottom of oil window Trap TrapTrap Seal Reservoir Source Underburden Overburden A A’ Magoon and Dow, 1994 Present-Day Petroleum SystemPresent-Day Petroleum System
  52. 52. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga 400 300 200 100 Paleozoic Mesozoic Cen. P NKJTPMD P Lithology Rock Unit Depth(Km) Source Reservoir Seal Overburden 1 2 3 Placer Fm George Sh Boar Ss Deer Sh Elk Fm Top gas window Critical MomentCritical Moment Thick Fm R Magoon and Dow, 1994 GenerationGeneration Time of Expulsion and Migration. (Trap must already exist) Top oil window Burial History ChartBurial History Chart
  53. 53. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Magoon and Dow, 1994 Inventory of AccumulationsInventory of Accumulations Field Name Date discovered Reservoir rock API Gravity ( API) Cumulative oil production (x10 bbl) Remaining reserves (x10 bbl) Hardy Lucky Marginal Teapot 1989 1990 1990 1992 Boar Ss Boar Ss Boar Ss Boar Ss 29 15 18 21 85 5 12 9 Big oil Raven Owens Just 1954 1956 1959 1966 Boar Ss Boar Ss Boar Ss Boar Ss 32 31 33 34 310 120 110 160 90 12 19 36 89 70 65 34 o 6 6 Deer-Boar Petroleum SystemDeerDeer--Boar Petroleum SystemBoar Petroleum System
  54. 54. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga 1 2 400 300 200 100 Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic D M P P TR J K Pε N Geologic Time-Scale Petroleum System Events Source Rock Reservoir Rock Seal Rock Overburden Trap Formation Generation, Migration, and Accumulation Preservation Critical Moment1. Western North Slope 2. East-central North Slope Bird, 1994 North Slope, Alaska Petroleum System Events ChartPetroleum System Events Chart
  55. 55. Geoscience Training Center Cefoga Spill PointSpill Point Spill PointSpill Point Seal RockSeal Rock (Mudstone)(Mudstone)Reservoir RockReservoir Rock (Sandstone)(Sandstone)Migration fromMigration from ‘Kitchen’‘Kitchen’ 1) Early Generation 2) Late Generation Gas displaces allGas displaces all oiloil Gas beginning toGas beginning to displace oildisplace oil Displaced oilDisplaced oil accumulatesaccumulates Petroleum SystemPetroleum SystemPetroleum System

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basic geology principles for ioil exploration

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