Golden rice ppt


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Golden rice ppt

  2. 2. <ul><li>Golden rice is a variety of Oryza sativa rice produced from genetic engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Biofortification-noun. The creation of plants that make or accumulate micronutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Main purpose is to provide pro-vitamin A to third world, developing, countries where malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency are common </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF ORYZA SATIVA <ul><li>Common Name: Asian Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Anthophyta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class: Commelinids </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Poales </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Poaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Oryza </li></ul><ul><li>Species: O. sativa </li></ul><ul><li>Binomial Nomenclature: Oryza sativa </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHY RICE? <ul><li>Other plants, such as sweet potatoes have varieties that are either rich (orange-fleshed) or poor (white fleshed) in pro-vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>Carrots were originally white or purple in the 1600’s. A Dutch horticulturist mutated the carrot to produce carotenes to symbolize the color of the Dutch Royal House of Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Global staple food. Cultivated for over 10,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Rice provides as much as 80 percent or more of the daily caloric intake of 3 billion people, which is half the world’s population </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHO BEGAN THE GOLDEN RICE PROJECT? <ul><li>Started in 1982 by Ingo Potrykus-Professor emeritus of the Institute for Plant Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Beyer-Professor of Centre for Applied Biosciences, Uni. Of Freiburg, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and Syngenta, a crop protection company . </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Rice Humanitarian Board-responsible for the global development, introduction and free distribution of Golden Rice to target countries. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION <ul><li>Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) include; night blindness, increased susceptibility to infection and cancer, anemia (lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin), deterioration of the eye tissue, and cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 9 million children die from malnutrition each year. A large proportion of those children die from common illnesses that could have been avoided through adequate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>The reduced immune competence increases the morbidity and mortality rates of children </li></ul>
  7. 7. GOALS: MORE IS WHAT WE AIM FOR <ul><li>Mutate rice plants to produce carotenoids, or organic pigments, specifically β -carotene (pro-vitamin A) in the endosperm, the edible part of the grain </li></ul><ul><li>Make Golden Rice accessible locally, free of charge to farmers, who are able to grow, save, consume, replant and locally sell Golden Rice </li></ul>Vitamin A (Retinol)
  8. 8. HOW DOES IT WORK? <ul><li>The addition of 2 genes in the rice genome will complete the biosynthetic pathway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Phytoene synthase (psy) – derived from daffodils ( Narcissus pseudonarcissus ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Phytoene synthase is a transferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. It catalyzes the conversion of geranylgerany pyrophosphate to phytoene.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Lycopene cyclase (crt1) – from soil bacteria Erwinia uredovora </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produces enzymes and catalysts for the biosynthesis of carotenoids ( β -carotene) in the endosperm </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The psy and crt1 genes were transformed into the rice nuclear genome and placed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter , so they are only expressed in the endosperm. </li></ul><ul><li>The exogenous lyc gene has a transit peptide sequence attached so it is targeted to the plastid , where geranylgerany diphosphate formation occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacterial crt1 gene was an important inclusion to complete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis of carotenoid, while these steps require more than one enzyme in plants. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The end product of the engineered pathway is lycopene , but if the plant accumulated lycopene, the rice would be red. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent analysis has shown the plant's endogenous enzymes process the lycopene to beta-carotene in the endosperm, giving the rice the distinctive yellow color for which it is named. The original golden rice was called SGR1, and under greenhouse conditions it produced 1.6 µg/g of carotenoids. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ADVANTAGE <ul><li>Golden rice give more quantity vitamin-A </li></ul><ul><li>Easy distribution when released to needy </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper option to supply vitamin A requirement compared to other supplementary measures </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable option as once released for common cultivation can be cultivated every growing season by farmer saved seeds, therefore no need of yearly budgetary investment for distribution </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause allergies or fail to perform desired effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply does not provide a substantial quantity as the recommended daily intake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Biodiversity. May become a gregarious weed and endanger the existence of natural rice plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic contamination of natural, global staple foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people prefer to cultivate and eat only white rice based on traditional values and spiritual beliefs </li></ul></ul>DISADVANTAGE
  13. 13. THANK YOU