Drugs containing lipids


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Drugs containing lipids

  1. 1. Drugs containing lipids 09PPB110 DEPT. OF BOTANY. ST. JOSEPH’S COLLEGE TRICHY - 2
  2. 2. What Is a Lipid? <ul><li>Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of lipid
  4. 4. Classification of lipid
  5. 5. Arachis oil <ul><li>It Is fixed oil expressed from the seed </li></ul><ul><li>kernels of cultivated varieties of Arachis hypogaea Linn., </li></ul><ul><li>Family Leguminosae </li></ul>
  6. 6. Method preparation <ul><li>Peanut kernels contain about 40-50% of fixed oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The graded and cleaned kernels are crushed d and oil is separated by expression further quantity of oil is collected by hot expression method. </li></ul><ul><li>Both fractions are mixed together. </li></ul><ul><li>It is then allowed to stand for some time to separate stearin and filtered. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil is then treated with fueller’s earth or carbon for bleaching and filtered thoroughly by using filter presses. </li></ul>
  7. 7. description <ul><li>Colour - Pale yellow colored liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Odour - Faint and characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Taste - Bland </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility -It is slightly soluble in alcohol and soluble in solvent either, chloroform and light petroleum(40-60 c) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chemical constituents </li></ul><ul><li>Arachis iol consists of glycerides of fatty acids, chiefly oleic,linileic,stearic and other acids are lignoceric and palmitic acids. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Uses <ul><li>Peanut oil is a solvent for intramuscular injections. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in the preparation of liniments and cosmetics. </li></ul><ul><li>It is valuable as a lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as an edible oil. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Castor oil <ul><li>Biological source </li></ul><ul><li>Castor oil is the fixed oil obtained by the cold expression of the seeds of Ricinus communis , </li></ul><ul><li>Family- Euphorbiaceae. </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Castor oil is a fixed oil of therapeutic importance and purgative in action it cannot be consumed freely. Apart from the oil seeds also contain some of the toxic substances (recin). </li></ul><ul><li>Castor seeds consist of 75% kernel and 25% of hull. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Preparation of castor oil <ul><li>The seeds are graded and freed of impurities like metallic pieces of iron and sand. </li></ul><ul><li>The seeds are decorticated and hulls are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Castor oil can be prepared by crushing of whole decorticated seeds in hydraulic presses and pressed to extracted the castor oil. </li></ul>
  12. 13. description <ul><li>Color –pale yellow and brown colored powder or almost colorless liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Odor - slight and characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Taste – first it is bland but afterwards slightly acrid , and usually nauseating . </li></ul>
  13. 14. Uses <ul><li>Castor oil is often given orally or as aromatic castor oil or in the form of capsules. </li></ul><ul><li>Other cosmetic purposes for which the oil is used include perfumed hair oil and hair fixers. </li></ul><ul><li>Castor oil used to make a soap and important raw material for synthesis of resins. </li></ul><ul><li>It is valuable as lubricant. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Olive oil <ul><li>Synomym </li></ul><ul><li>Oleum Olive </li></ul><ul><li>Biological source </li></ul><ul><li>It is fixed oil expessed from of ripe fruit of Olea europoea Linne , </li></ul><ul><li>Belonging to family Oleaceae. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Method of preparation <ul><li>It is prepared by crushing and pressing the ripe fruits called Olives. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire olive consists of 20-30 percent oil. The fruit pulp has 60-80 percent oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydraulic pressed are used to squeeze the oil out of fruit under low pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The further pressing give low quality oil. The oil that comes from the last pressing is called olive residue and is generally used for cosmetics, medicines, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Description <ul><li>Colour - pale yellow or greenish –yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Odour - slight and characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Tast - band, faintly acrid </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility - it is slightly soluble in alcohol and miscible with carbon disulpide, chlorofrom and ether. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Chemical constituents <ul><li>The olive oil contains the triglycerides mainly in the from of olein. Palmitin and linolein. </li></ul>
  18. 19. uses <ul><li>Externally, it is an emollient and soothing agent for inflamed surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also used as an ingredient of ear wax. </li></ul><ul><li>Mild laxative </li></ul><ul><li>It is used as a vehicle for oily suspensions for injection. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for hair oil. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Linssed oil <ul><li>Biological source </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed consists of dried ripe seeds of the plant known as Linum usitatissimum Linn., Linaceae . </li></ul><ul><li>It contains not less than 25% of fixed oils and not more than 1% of foreign organic matter. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Method of preparation <ul><li>Mature Seeds are served to make free of earthy matter and other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially, linseed oil is produced by use of expellers. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the seeds are subjected to the expellers, they are rolled into meal, then moistened and heated by means off steam jacketed troughs filled over the expellers. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>An average yield of oil is 30 – 35% </li></ul><ul><li>The expressed oil is tanked for along period, to settle the coloring matter and mucilage. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil is then treated with alkali (NaOH, KOH Ca)immediately after filtration. </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali treatment helps to remove free fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Bleaching of oil is done by either charcoal of fuller's earth at elevated temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>The refined oil are chilled to separate wax. </li></ul>
  22. 23. description <ul><li>Colour – pale yellow colored clear liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Odour – characteristic (quality) </li></ul><ul><li>Taste – pleasant </li></ul>
  23. 24. Chemical constituents <ul><li>It contains the glycerides of palmitic, stewaric, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed also contains a cyanogenetic (beta)glycoside linamartin and mucilage(5%). In addition of fixed oil (20 -40%) </li></ul>
  24. 25. uses <ul><li>It is the most important drying oil large quantities are used for paints and varnishes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is mainly recommended for external applications like lotions and liniments. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in treatment of scabies and other skin diseases along with sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>It is has very high iodine value, it is used in the preparation of non staining iodine ointment and other products like cresol (phenols)with soap. </li></ul><ul><li>It is nutritive and emollient too. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Sesame oil <ul><li>Biological source </li></ul><ul><li>It is fixed oil obtained by expression from the seeds of Sesamum indicum belonging to </li></ul><ul><li>Family Pedaliaceae. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Method of preparation <ul><li>Sesame seeds contain about 50% 0f fixed oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Only white variety of seeds is used for pharmaceutical purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds are very small in size. </li></ul><ul><li>They are cleaned, washed, sundried and expressed to yield oil at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently, the temperature ands pressure are raised. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil is purified by the refining method and used. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Description <ul><li>Colour – pale yellowish liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Odour – slightly characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Taste – blend </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility – it is slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with chloroform, solvent ether, light petroleum (40 – 60%) and carbon disulphide </li></ul>
  28. 29. Chemical constituents <ul><li>Gingelly oil contains glycerides of high fatty acids mainly oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic and arachidic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>It contain about 5% of olein, and a phenol known as sesamol which is responsible for solubility of oil. </li></ul><ul><li>It also contain lignone derivatives (Sesamin and sesamolin) </li></ul>
  29. 30. Uses <ul><li>It is nutritive,laxative, </li></ul><ul><li>demulcent(inflammation of the membrane) and got emollient properties. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in the preparation of liniments, plasters, ointments and soaps. </li></ul><ul><li>After burning, sesame oil yields high quality black ink. </li></ul>
  30. 31. SAFFLOWER OIL <ul><li>Biological Source </li></ul><ul><li>It is a fixed oil obtained from the ripe and dry seeds of Carthamus tinctorius Linn., </li></ul><ul><li>Family of Compositae . </li></ul>
  31. 32. Method of preparation <ul><li>For expression of oil, the seeds from promising varieties in India are selected, cleaned and further processed. </li></ul><ul><li>About 1000 seeds of safflower weigh 20 to 50g. </li></ul><ul><li>The seeds normally contain 35 to 38% of fixed oil. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil is prepared by expression in expellers or with the help of hydraulic presses. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil is filtered and further purified. </li></ul><ul><li>The seed meal or round seeds are subjected to cooking by means of open steam, which ensured maximum yield of oil. The filtered and decolorized oil is packed into suitable containers. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Description <ul><li>It is a clear, faint yellowish liquid with characteristic odor and taste. </li></ul><ul><li>The oil thickens and becomes rancid on exposure to air. </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble in alcohol in alcohol and freely soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene and petroleum-ether. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Uses <ul><li>The edible oil is in the manufacture of oleomargarine, as a dietary supplement in hypercholesteremia and also in treatment of atherolerosis. </li></ul><ul><li>It is consumed for preparation of vegetable ghee. </li></ul>
  34. 35. NEEM OIL <ul><li>BIOLOGICAL SOURCE </li></ul><ul><li>It is a non edible fixed oil obtained from fully mature seeds of Azadirachta indica </li></ul><ul><li>Meliaceae </li></ul>
  35. 36. Description <ul><li>It is yellow coloured oil with specific odour and bitter taste. </li></ul><ul><li>It is soluble in ether and chloroform. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Chemical constituents <ul><li>It contains glycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>The main fatty acids are oleic acid (50%) and stearic acid (20%). </li></ul><ul><li>The oil contains 2% of bitters, which are sulphur containing compounds, nimbidin, nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidol. </li></ul><ul><li>The unsaponifiable part contains nimbosterol (0.03%) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Uses <ul><li>Antiviral activity </li></ul><ul><li>As an non edible oil, it is used for soap making and for manufacturing of oleic and stearic acids. </li></ul><ul><li>It is indicated in rheumatism and also as a pesticide and in medicated soaps for skin diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also spermicidal. </li></ul>