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S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y
& K N O W L E D G E
G A P T H E O R Y
D A V I D O N O U E , A L A N T A Y L O R J R ,
S A N D ...
S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y
T H E O R Y
D A V I D & A L A N
😴
L E T ’ S G E T T H E B O R I N G
S T U F F O U T T H E W A Y …
H E N R I
T A J F E L
J O H N
T U R N E R
Social Identity Theory (1979)
C R E A T O R S
Retrieved From: http://www.easp.eu...
H I S T O R Y
U N D E R S T A N D T H E P S Y C H O L O G I C A L B A S I S O F
I N T E R G R O U P D I S C R I M I N A T ...
H I S T O R Y
A P E R S O N H A S N O T O N E , “ P E R S O N A L S E L F , ”
B U T R A T H E R S E V E R A L S E L V E S ...
H I S T O R Y
S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y A S S E R T S T H A T G R O U P
M E M B E R S H I P C R E A T E S I ...
H I S T O R Y
A F T E R B E I N G C A T E G O R I Z E D O F A G R O U P
M E M B E R S H I P , I N D I V I D U A L S S E E ...
W H A T D O E S A L L
T H I S M E A N ?
🤔
H T T P S : / / Y O U T U . B E / R R T E O K W 7 M 8 0
M E A N G I R L S
M I S S B M A S E . ( 2 0 1 2 , O C T 2 0 ) M E ...
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
“ G R O ...
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
“ I N O ...
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
W E A C ...
🗣 🗣V S
I N - G R O U P V S O U T - G R O U P
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
“ T H E ...
I S T H I S T H E O R Y R E L E V A N T
I N S O C I A L M E D I A ?
C A N Y O U T H I N K O F A N Y
S O C I A L G R O U P S O N L I N E ?
E X A M P L E S O F O N L I N E
S O C I A L G R O U P S ?
S W I F T I E S
T A Y L O R S W I F T ’ S
F A N B A S E
B E L I ...
Marioto, Claudio. “Beyonce Live at Roseland Ballroom in New York” Permission to reprint by Claudio Marioto.
B E Y H I V E ...
1 2 B E Y H I V E A T T A C K S :
• RACHEL ROY
• RACHEL RAY
• RITA ORA
• PIERS MORGAN
• AZEALIA BANKS
• KID ROCK
• WENDY W...
T H E B E Y H I V E “ S W A R M ”
B E T S Y M C C A U G H E Y
S W A R T Z , A . ( 2 0 1 6 , O C T O B E R 1 1 ) . B E Y O ...
# E P I C F A I L
S O U R C E : I N S T A G R A M
W O U L D T H E B E Y H I V E E X I S T
W I T H O U T S O C I A L M E D I A ?
Y E S , T H E Y C O U L D S T I L L
E X I S T .
T H E B E Y H I V E W O U L D R E L Y O N
T R A D I T I O N A L M E D I A ...
H O W E V E R …
S O C I A L M E D I A P R O V I D E S A
P L A T F O R M F O R T H E B E Y H I V E T O
O R G A N I Z E A N ...
H E R E A R E A F E W O T H E R
E X A M P L E S :
T E N N E S S E E
T I T A N S
F A N B A S E
# T I T A N U P
# C O D E B L U E
S O U R C E : F A C E B O O K
D A N + S H A Y
VS
Sense of belonging
Dan + Shay. “How Not To.” (2016, Dec 26). Retrieved From: https://www.facebook.com/D...
W H A T A B O U T
#⃣’ S ?
Y E S
U S I N G H A S H T A G S I S O N E W A Y O F U S I N G S O C I A L
M E D I A T O I D E N T I F Y W I T H A G R O U ...
P R O - T R U M P
# A M E R I C A F I R S T
S O U R C E : T W I T T E R
# N O T M Y P R E S I D E N T
V S
# A M E R I C A F I R S T
S O C I A L M E D I A S T R E N G T H E N S T H E S O C I A L
I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y B Y P R O V I D I N G A
P L A T ...
Sandeep Gourkanti & Hongyue Guo
THEORY
GA
KNOWLE DGE
P
THE
Creators
Philip J Tichenor George A. Donohue
“As the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases hig...
Hierarchy of Knowledge
The knowledge gap exists
between information and
knowledge.
Weng, Sho-chi (2000). Mass Communicatio...
Why does the gap exist?
Communication Skills Stored information Relevant Social Contact
Selective Exposure
Media Target Ma...
Media Use and HIV/AIDS
Knowledge in Ethiopia
Does media use open and widen or narrow and close gaps in
HIV/AIDS-related knowledge between urban and rural
Ethiopian res...
A household survey was conducted between March and June 2011
in two urban towns and two rural villages located in
northwes...
Regression plot for the interaction between media use and urbanity versus rurality
The knowledge gap between urban residen...
Who has more authority?
Source: Twitter
Source: Sysomos MAP
Average Twitter follower authority
Source: FiveThirtyEight
Source: FiveThirtyEight
“Having the president-elect on our service — using it as a
direct line of communication — allows everyone to see what’s
on...
How to test young people’s
civic online reasoning?
Source: Icon Finder
Source: Stanford History Education Group
Source: Stanford History Education Group
Why might this tweet be a useful source?
Source: Stanford History Education Group
What are ways to educate young people to judge the credibility of
social media information?
Discussion:
Bekalu, M. & Eggermont, S. (2013). Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective. Oxford Academic. Retriev...
References
University of Twente. “SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY.” Retrieved from:
https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Th...
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Social Media and the Social Identity & Knowledge Gap Theory

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This presentation examines two communication theories and its relevance to modern social media. The first is social identity theory, developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner, which asserts that group membership creates in-group/self-categorization and enhancement in ways that favor the in-group at the expense of the out-group. The second is knowledge gap theory first purposed by Philip Turner, George Donohue, and Clarice Olien. They believed that the increase of information in society is not evenly acquired by every member of society. People with higher socioeconomic status tend to have better ability to acquire information.

Group members: Sandeep Gourkanti, Hongyue Guo, David Onoue & Alan Taylor Jr.

Published in: Education
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Social Media and the Social Identity & Knowledge Gap Theory

  1. 1. S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y & K N O W L E D G E G A P T H E O R Y D A V I D O N O U E , A L A N T A Y L O R J R , S A N D E E P G O U R K A N T I & H O N G Y U E G U O
  2. 2. S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y D A V I D & A L A N
  3. 3. 😴 L E T ’ S G E T T H E B O R I N G S T U F F O U T T H E W A Y …
  4. 4. H E N R I T A J F E L J O H N T U R N E R Social Identity Theory (1979) C R E A T O R S Retrieved From: http://www.easp.eu/about/awards/henri-tajfel-medals/ Retrieved From: http://psychology.anu.edu.au/about-us/people/john-charles-turner
  5. 5. H I S T O R Y U N D E R S T A N D T H E P S Y C H O L O G I C A L B A S I S O F I N T E R G R O U P D I S C R I M I N A T I O N U N I V E R S I T Y O F T W E N T E . “ S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y . ” R E T R I E V E D F R O M : H T T P S : / / W W W . U T W E N T E . N L / C W / T H E O R I E E N O V E R Z I C H T / T H E O R Y % 2 0 C L U S T E R S / I N T E R P E R S O N A L % 2 0 C O M M U N I C A T I O N % 2 0 A N D % 2 0 R E L A T I O N S / S O C I A L _ I D E N T I T Y _ T H E O R Y /
  6. 6. H I S T O R Y A P E R S O N H A S N O T O N E , “ P E R S O N A L S E L F , ” B U T R A T H E R S E V E R A L S E L V E S T H A T C O R R E S P O N D T O W I D E N I N G C I R C L E S O F G R O U P M E M B E R S H I P . U N I V E R S I T Y O F T W E N T E . “ S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y . ” R E T R I E V E D F R O M : H T T P S : / / W W W . U T W E N T E . N L / C W / T H E O R I E E N O V E R Z I C H T / T H E O R Y % 2 0 C L U S T E R S / I N T E R P E R S O N A L % 2 0 C O M M U N I C A T I O N % 2 0 A N D % 2 0 R E L A T I O N S / S O C I A L _ I D E N T I T Y _ T H E O R Y /
  7. 7. H I S T O R Y S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y A S S E R T S T H A T G R O U P M E M B E R S H I P C R E A T E S I N - G R O U P / S E L F - C A T E G O R I Z A T I O N A N D E N H A N C E M E N T I N W A Y S T H A T F A V O R T H E I N - G R O U P A T T H E E X P E N S E O F T H E O U T - G R O U P . U N I V E R S I T Y O F T W E N T E . “ S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y . ” R E T R I E V E D F R O M : H T T P S : / / W W W . U T W E N T E . N L / C W / T H E O R I E E N O V E R Z I C H T / T H E O R Y % 2 0 C L U S T E R S / I N T E R P E R S O N A L % 2 0 C O M M U N I C A T I O N % 2 0 A N D % 2 0 R E L A T I O N S / S O C I A L _ I D E N T I T Y _ T H E O R Y /
  8. 8. H I S T O R Y A F T E R B E I N G C A T E G O R I Z E D O F A G R O U P M E M B E R S H I P , I N D I V I D U A L S S E E K T O A C H I E V E P O S I T I V E S E L F - E S T E E M B Y P O S I T I V E L Y D I F F E R E N T I A T I N G T H E I R I N - G R O U P F R O M A C O M P A R I S O N O U T - G R O U P O N S O M E V A L U E D D I M E N S I O N . U N I V E R S I T Y O F T W E N T E . “ S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y . ” R E T R I E V E D F R O M : H T T P S : / / W W W . U T W E N T E . N L / C W / T H E O R I E E N O V E R Z I C H T / T H E O R Y % 2 0 C L U S T E R S / I N T E R P E R S O N A L % 2 0 C O M M U N I C A T I O N % 2 0 A N D % 2 0 R E L A T I O N S / S O C I A L _ I D E N T I T Y _ T H E O R Y /
  9. 9. W H A T D O E S A L L T H I S M E A N ? 🤔
  10. 10. H T T P S : / / Y O U T U . B E / R R T E O K W 7 M 8 0 M E A N G I R L S M I S S B M A S E . ( 2 0 1 2 , O C T 2 0 ) M E A N M E A N G I R L S - C L I Q U E S G I R L S . R E T R I E V E D F R O M : H T T P S : / / Y O U T U . B E / R R T E O K W 7 M 8 0
  11. 11. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html “ G R O U P S G I V E U S A S E N S E O F S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y ; A S E N S E O F B E L O N G I N G T O T H E S O C I A L W O R L D . ” — M C L E O D , S . A . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y
  12. 12. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html “ I N O R D E R T O I N C R E A S E O U R S E L F - I M A G E W E E N H A N C E T H E S T A T U S O F T H E G R O U P T O W H I C H W E B E L O N G . ” — M C L E O D , S . A . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y
  13. 13. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html W E A C H I E V E T H I S “ B Y D I S C R I M I N A T I N G A N D H O L D I N G P R E J U D I C E V I E W S A G A I N S T T H E O U T - G R O U P ( T H E G R O U P W E D O N ’ T B E L O N G T O ) . ” — M C L E O D , S . A . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y
  14. 14. 🗣 🗣V S I N - G R O U P V S O U T - G R O U P
  15. 15. McLeod, S. A. (2008). Social Identity Theory. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html “ T H E R E F O R E , W E D I V I D E D T H E W O R L D I N T O ‘ T H E M ’ A N D ‘ U S ’ B A S E D T H R O U G H A P R O C E S S O F S O C I A L C A T E G O R I Z A T I O N ( I . E . W E P U T P E O P L E I N T O S O C I A L G R O U P S ) . ” — M C L E O D , S . A . ( 2 0 0 8 ) . S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y
  16. 16. I S T H I S T H E O R Y R E L E V A N T I N S O C I A L M E D I A ?
  17. 17. C A N Y O U T H I N K O F A N Y S O C I A L G R O U P S O N L I N E ?
  18. 18. E X A M P L E S O F O N L I N E S O C I A L G R O U P S ? S W I F T I E S T A Y L O R S W I F T ’ S F A N B A S E B E L I E B E R S J U S T I N B I E B E R ’ S F A N B A S E S O U R C E : F A C E B O O KS O U R C E : T W I T T E R
  19. 19. Marioto, Claudio. “Beyonce Live at Roseland Ballroom in New York” Permission to reprint by Claudio Marioto. B E Y H I V E ? ?
  20. 20. 1 2 B E Y H I V E A T T A C K S : • RACHEL ROY • RACHEL RAY • RITA ORA • PIERS MORGAN • AZEALIA BANKS • KID ROCK • WENDY WILLIAMS • RAVEN-SYMONÉ • KARRUECHE TRAN • RIHANNA • KIM KARDASHIAN • LULULEMON U S M A G A Z I N E ( 2 0 1 6 , M A Y 2 3 ) . 1 2 T I M E S T H E B E Y H I V E A T T A C K E D T O D E F E N D B E Y O N C E . R E T R I E V E D F E B R U A R Y 0 8 , 2 0 1 7 , F R O M H T T P : / / W W W . U S M A G A Z I N E . C O M / E N T E R T A I N M E N T / P I C T U R E S / 1 2 - T I M E S - T H E - B E Y H I V E - A T T A C K E D - T O - D E F E N D - B E Y O N C E - W 2 0 6 0 1 4 / K I M - K A R D A S H I A N - W 2 0 6 0 9 6
  21. 21. T H E B E Y H I V E “ S W A R M ” B E T S Y M C C A U G H E Y S W A R T Z , A . ( 2 0 1 6 , O C T O B E R 1 1 ) . B E Y O N C É F A N S C A M E F O R B E T S Y M C C A U G H E Y A F T E R S H E U S E D B E Y O N C É L Y R I C S T O D E F E N D T R U M P . R E T R I E V E D F E B R U A R Y 0 8 , 2 0 1 7 , F R O M H T T P S : / / M I C . C O M / A R T I C L E S / 1 5 6 5 4 7 / B E Y O N C - F A N S - C A M E - F O R - B E T S Y - M C - C A U G H E Y - A F T E R - S H E - U S E D - B E Y O N C - L Y R I C S - T O - D E F E N D - T R U M P # . O H E V C 9 F 9 L
  22. 22. # E P I C F A I L S O U R C E : I N S T A G R A M
  23. 23. W O U L D T H E B E Y H I V E E X I S T W I T H O U T S O C I A L M E D I A ?
  24. 24. Y E S , T H E Y C O U L D S T I L L E X I S T . T H E B E Y H I V E W O U L D R E L Y O N T R A D I T I O N A L M E D I A ( I . E . T V , R A D I O , P R I N T ) F O R I N F O R M A T I O N A N D R E S O R T T O O L D S C H O O L T A C T I C S O F H A T E M A I L . B U T W H O D O E S T H A T ?
  25. 25. H O W E V E R … S O C I A L M E D I A P R O V I D E S A P L A T F O R M F O R T H E B E Y H I V E T O O R G A N I Z E A N D “ S T I N G ” T H E O U T - G R O U P .
  26. 26. H E R E A R E A F E W O T H E R E X A M P L E S :
  27. 27. T E N N E S S E E T I T A N S F A N B A S E # T I T A N U P # C O D E B L U E S O U R C E : F A C E B O O K
  28. 28. D A N + S H A Y VS Sense of belonging Dan + Shay. “How Not To.” (2016, Dec 26). Retrieved From: https://www.facebook.com/DanAndShay/photos/a.555882624464356.1073741824.548874401831845/1398958690156741/?type=1&theater
  29. 29. W H A T A B O U T #⃣’ S ?
  30. 30. Y E S U S I N G H A S H T A G S I S O N E W A Y O F U S I N G S O C I A L M E D I A T O I D E N T I F Y W I T H A G R O U P . P E O P L E W H O I D E N T I F Y A S N O N - T R U M P S U P P O R T E R S : # N O T M Y P R E S I D E N T S O U R C E : T W I T T E R
  31. 31. P R O - T R U M P # A M E R I C A F I R S T S O U R C E : T W I T T E R
  32. 32. # N O T M Y P R E S I D E N T V S # A M E R I C A F I R S T
  33. 33. S O C I A L M E D I A S T R E N G T H E N S T H E S O C I A L I D E N T I T Y T H E O R Y B Y P R O V I D I N G A P L A T F O R M F O R T H E S E S O C I A L G R O U P S T O E X I S T , A N D F O R P E O P L E T O B E A B L E T O I D E N T I F Y W I T H .
  34. 34. Sandeep Gourkanti & Hongyue Guo THEORY GA KNOWLE DGE P THE
  35. 35. Creators Philip J Tichenor George A. Donohue “As the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases higher socioeconomic status segments tend to acquire this information faster than lower socioeconomic status population segments so that gap in knowledge between the two tends to increase rather than decrease.” -Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien (1970) Clarice. N Olien Tichenor, P.J., Donohue, G.A. and Olien, C.N. (1970). Mass Media Flow and Differential Growth in Knowledge, Public Opinion Quarterly 34: Colombia University Press. http://www.infoamerica.org/teoria/tichenor1.htm
  36. 36. Hierarchy of Knowledge The knowledge gap exists between information and knowledge. Weng, Sho-chi (2000). Mass Communication Theory and Practice. Taipei: San-ming. Wisdom Knowledge Information Data Knowledge is not distributed equally throughout society. People with higher socioeconomic status have better ability to acquire information.
  37. 37. Why does the gap exist? Communication Skills Stored information Relevant Social Contact Selective Exposure Media Target Markets Bonfadelli, H. (2002). The Internet and knowledge gaps: A theoretical and empirical investigation. European Journal of Communication, 17(1), 65–84. Donohue, G. A., Olien, C. N., & Tichenor, P. J. (1987). Media access and knowledge gaps. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4(1), 87–92. Eveland, W. P., Jr., & Scheufele, D. A. (2000). Connecting news media use with gaps in knowledge and participation. Political Communication, 17(3), 215-–237.
  38. 38. Media Use and HIV/AIDS Knowledge in Ethiopia
  39. 39. Does media use open and widen or narrow and close gaps in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge between urban and rural Ethiopian residents? Bekalu, M. & Eggermont, S. (2013). Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective. Oxford Academic.
  40. 40. A household survey was conducted between March and June 2011 in two urban towns and two rural villages located in northwestern Ethiopia. The data was collected from 995 respondents between the ages of 15–34. Bekalu, M. & Eggermont, S. (2013). Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective. Oxford Academic.
  41. 41. Regression plot for the interaction between media use and urbanity versus rurality The knowledge gap between urban residents and rural residents tends to widen as media use increases. Bekalu, M. & Eggermont, S. (2013). Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective. Oxford Academic.
  42. 42. Who has more authority? Source: Twitter
  43. 43. Source: Sysomos MAP Average Twitter follower authority
  44. 44. Source: FiveThirtyEight
  45. 45. Source: FiveThirtyEight
  46. 46. “Having the president-elect on our service — using it as a direct line of communication — allows everyone to see what’s on his mind in the moment. We’re definitely entering a new world where everything is on the surface and we can all see it in real time and we can have conversations about it. Where does that go? I’m not really sure. But it’s definitely been fascinating to learn from.” -Jack Dorsey, Twitter CEO
  47. 47. How to test young people’s civic online reasoning? Source: Icon Finder
  48. 48. Source: Stanford History Education Group
  49. 49. Source: Stanford History Education Group
  50. 50. Why might this tweet be a useful source? Source: Stanford History Education Group
  51. 51. What are ways to educate young people to judge the credibility of social media information? Discussion:
  52. 52. Bekalu, M. & Eggermont, S. (2013). Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective. Oxford Academic. Retrieved 8 February 2017, from https://academic.oup.com/heapro/article/29/4/739/565818/Media-use-and-HIV-AIDS-knowledge-a-knowledge-gap Bonfadelli, H. (2002). The Internet and knowledge gaps: A theoretical and empirical investigation. European Journal of Communication, 17(1), 65–84. Donohue, G. A., Olien, C. N., & Tichenor, P. J. (1987). Media access and knowledge gaps. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4(1), 87–92. Eveland, W. P., Jr., & Scheufele, D. A. (2000). Connecting news media use with gaps in knowledge and participation. Political Communication, 17(3), 215-–237. Silver, N. (2016). Education, Not Income, Predicted Who Would Vote For Trump. FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 8 February 2017, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/education-not-income-predicted-who-would-vote-for-trump/ Stanford University. Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. (2016). Stanford History Education Group. Retrieved 8 February 2017, from https://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/V3LessonPlans/Executive%20Summary%2011.21.16.pdf Tichenor, P.J., Donohue, G.A. and Olien, C.N. (1970). Mass Media Flow and Differential Growth in Knowledge, Public Opinion Quarterly 34: Colombia University Press. University of Twente. Knowledge Gap. (2016). Utwente.nl. Retrieved 8 February 2017, from https://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20Clusters/Mass%20Media/knowledge_gap/ Weng, Sho-chi (2000). Mass Communication Theory and Practice. Taipei: San-ming References
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