ROMANESQUE ARTSònia Pontnou, Laura Piñol, Clàudia Roca i Núria Solé
ROMANESQUE ART Romanesque art shows the visual art made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Major forms of Romanesque art are architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work, coin-die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, although this would not necessarily have been the case for contemporaries.
PAINTING The range of samples is confined to only about 200 years out of the about 900 years of Roman history and provincial and decorative painting. Most of this wall painting was done using the secco (“dry”) method, but some fresco paintings also existed in Roman times. There is evidence from mosaics and a few inscriptions that some Romanesque paintings were adaptations or copies of earlier Greek works.
Painting in Catalonia The painting has the same iconographic subjects than the sculpture. There are also mural painting. This painting was very important because all the buildings were polychrome. The painting was situated inside. The subjects are: the tetramorf, the pantocrator, the apostles and the saints. In the walls narrative subjects appear, like the Old and New Testament. But also appear the lives of the saints appear, especially if they have relation with the road that the faithful have to resore to obtain the Salvation In the romanesque painting the miniature stands out.
SCULPTURE Traditional Romanesque sculpture is divided into five categories: portraiture, historical relief, funerary reliefs, sarcophagi and copies of ancient Greek works. Romanesque sculpture was heavily influenced by Greek examples, in particular their bronzes. One example of this is at the British Museum, where an intact 2nd century AD sculpture was found..
Sculpture in Catalonia The romanesque sculpture represents the most complete reaction to the classical naturalism. The figures have a tremendous spirituality. The sculptures of romance art are mainly situated in capitals and facades. As all the represented figures, they have to adapt to the space that gave to occupy.
ARCHITECTURE The Romanesque art produced its greatest innovations. Though concrete had been invented a thousand years earlier in the Near East, the Romans extended its use from fortifications to their most impressive buildings and monuments, capitalizing on the material’s strength and low cost. The concrete core was covered with plaster, brick, stone or marble veneer, and decorative polychrome and gold-gilded sculpture was often added to produce a dazzling effect of power and wealth.
Architecture in Catalonia The term was invented by 19th century art historians, especially for Romanesque architecture, which retained many basic features of Romanesque architectural style most notably round-headed arches, but also barrel vaults, apses, and acanthus-leaf decoration - but had also developed many very different characteristics. Romanesque art was also greatly influenced by Byzantine art, especially in painting, by the anti- classical energy of the decoration of the Insular art of the British Isles, and from these elements forged a highly innovative and coherent style.