Logframework and swort thursday


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Logframework and swort thursday

  1. 1. The Logical Framework Approach The Logical Framework Approach is a project design methodology which takes the form of a four x four project table.
  2. 2. The Logical Framework Approach The four rows are used to describe four different types of events that take place as a project is implemented: • The project Activities, • The project Outputs, • The project Purpose and • The project Goal
  3. 3. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX Narrative Summary Verifiable Indicators (OVI) Means of Verification (MOV) Important Assumptions GOAL PURPOSE OUTPUTS ACTIVITIES Inputs
  5. 5. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX The four columns provide different types of information about the events in each row. • The first column is used to provide a Narrative description of the event (design summary) • The second column lists one or more Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs) of these events taking place. (the performance target) • The third column describes the Means of Verification (MoV) where information will be available on the OVIs, (monitoring mechanism) and
  6. 6. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX • the fourth column lists the Assumptions & risks) Assumptions are external factors that it is believed could influence (positively or negatively) the events described in the narrative column. The list of assumptions should include those factors that potentially impact on the success of the project, but which cannot be directly controlled by the project or program managers. In some cases these may include what could be killer assumptions, which if proved wrong will have major negative consequences for the project.
  7. 7. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX The core of the Logical Framework is the "temporal logic model" that runs through the matrix. This takes the form of a series of connected propositions:
  8. 8. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX The inputs are expected to result in the outputs, which in turn are expected to achieve the immediate objective (sometimes called the purpose) of the project which contributes to the longer term objectives (sometimes called the goals of the project.)
  9. 9. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX • If these Activities are implemented, and these Assumptions hold, then these Outputs will be delivered • If these Outputs are delivered, and these Assumptions hold, then this Purpose will be achieved. • If this Purpose is achieved, and these Assumptions hold, then this Goal will be achieved.
  11. 11. Core concepts underlying the logical framework are summarized as follows: • The logical framework presents the key elements of a development intervention and their interrelationships. The intervention is usually termed a project or a program. • The framework clearly identifies the impacts or objectives the project or program will achieve. It also allocates measurable and/or tangible performance targets to them. • The framework also clearly identifies the inputs and outputs the project or program will deliver to enable achievement of the proposed objectives.
  12. 12. Thus, the framework presents a cause and effect matrix where inputs lead to outputs and outputs lead to immediate objectives, which in turn lead to longer-term objectives.
  13. 13. CORE CONCEPT OF LOGFRAME MATRIX: MEANS AND END LOGIC The main concept underlying the Logical Framework is means and end. The better the means and end linkages between each level of aims, the better the programme design. • By definition, each programme has a “if-then” or “means-and-end” logic embedded in it. If we produce certain results under certain conditions, then we can expect to achieve certain other outcomes.
  14. 14. LFM The first column in LFM shows Activity Description Goal or Impact – The long term development impact (policy goal) that the activity contributes at a national or sectoral level
  15. 15. OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) Within the LFM it is important to think of the indicators of the success of the project. These are called OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) (performance targets) • The quantitative, qualitative, and time-bound measures that constitute evidence of the extent to which the aims have been met at the four levels of the hierarchy. They Indicate how to recognize success at each level of aim
  16. 16. OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) • Indicators must be valid, reliable, precise, cost- effective and stated independently from other levels. • Indicators should make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs. • Indicators should be specific in terms of: – Quality (what?) - Q – Quantity (how much?) - Q – Time (when, how long?) - T – Target Group (who?) - T – Place (where?) - P
  17. 17. Means of verification- It is also important to have Means of verification- ( monitoring mechanism) The specific sources from which the status of each of the indicators can be ascertained Sources of information on the Goal indicator(s) – including who will collect it and how often
  18. 18. Assumptions Assumptions and risks: • The "Assumptions" column is of great importance in clarifying the extent to which project/program objectives depend on external factors, • Assumptions and risks are external conditions that are outside the control of the programme. The achievement of aims depends on whether or not assumptions hold true and the risks do not materialize.
  19. 19. Assumptions • When working on a programme, we make assumptions about the degree of uncertainty between different levels of aims. • The lower the uncertainty that certain assumptions will hold true, the stronger the programme design. The failing assumptions can derail a programme as often as poorly executed outputs.
  20. 20. Assumptions • Log frame demands that all hypotheses, assumptions and risks relevant to a programme are made explicit.
  21. 21. Assumptions • By implication, this then further demands that the appropriate action is considered (and if necessary taken) before problems materialize. – How important are the assumptions – How big are the risks – Should the programme be redesigned? – Should elements of the proposed programme be abandoned?
  22. 22. SWOT ANALYSIS • Strengths, • Weaknesses, • Opportunities and • Threats
  23. 23. SWOT ANALYSIS Definition: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis is a business or project management tool used to evaluate an organization’s strength’s, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  24. 24. SWOT ANALYSIS • The tool is used to produce a model that can serve to provide direction in the development, formulation, and assessment of project management plans.
  25. 25. SWOT ANALYSIS • Strengths: characteristics of the business, or project team that give it an advantage over others • Weaknesses (or Limitations): are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others • Opportunities: external chances to improve performance (e.g. make greater profits) in the environment • Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project
  26. 26. SWOT ANALYSIS • Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis can also identify potential obstacles to success, as well as flaws in the plan that must be addressed, controlled, or eliminated if the desired results are to be achieved.
  27. 27. SWOT ANALYSIS • In order for the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis to be effective, project management must do more than simply identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats involved.
  28. 28. SWOT ANALYSIS • Risk management demands that it is necessary to avoid, eliminate, or at the very least, minimize identified weaknesses and threats. Weaknesses should be closely scrutinized in order to determine whether or not it is possible to convert them into assets.
  29. 29. SWOT ANALYSIS • Similarly, threats should be closely examined for the opportunity of building strength in areas where they stood, once they have been eliminated. Strengths and opportunities should be closely studied as well in order to maximize their effectiveness.
  30. 30. SWOT ANALYSIS • Project management would be well advised to take advantage of this simple, cost effective management tool and to make it a fundamental step in the planning process.
  31. 31. Cost–benefit analysis
  32. 32. Cost–benefit analysis Cost-benefit analysis: Benefits (direct + indirect)/Costs A process by which business/programmes decisions are analyzed. The benefits of a given situation or business-related action are summed and then the costs associated with taking that action are subtracted.
  33. 33. Cost–benefit analysis • Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit–cost analysis (BCA), is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a project, decision or government policy (hereafter, "project"). CBA has two purposes:
  34. 34. Cost–benefit analysis 1. To determine if it is a sound investment/decision (justification/feasibility), 2. To provide a basis for comparing projects. It involves comparing the total expected cost of each option against the total expected benefits, to see whether the benefits outweigh the costs, and by how much.
  35. 35. Cost–benefit analysis • In CBA, benefits and costs are expressed in money terms, and are adjusted for the time value of money, so that all flows of benefits and flows of project costs over time (which tend to occur at different points in time) are expressed on a common basis in terms of their "net present value."
  36. 36. Cost–benefit analysis A cost benefit analysis finds, quantifies, and adds all the positive factors. These are the benefits. Then it identifies, quantifies, and subtracts all the negatives, the costs. The difference between the two indicates whether the planned action is advisable.
  37. 37. Cost–benefit analysis The real trick to doing a cost benefit analysis well is making sure you include all the costs and all the benefits and properly quantify them.
  38. 38. Cost–benefit analysis There Must Be a Common Unit of Measurement: In order to reach a conclusion as to the desirability of a project all aspects of the project, positive and negative, must be expressed in terms of a common unit; i.e., there must be a "bottom line." The most convenient common unit is money. This means that all benefits and costs of a project should be measured in terms of their equivalent money value.
  39. 39. Cost–benefit analysis • A program may provide benefits which are not directly expressed in terms of dollars but there is some amount of money the recipients of the benefits would consider just as good as the project's benefits. • For example, a project may provide for the elderly in an area a free monthly visit to a doctor
  40. 40. Cost–benefit analysis The value of that benefit to an elderly recipient is the minimum amount of money that that recipient would take instead of the medical care.
  41. 41. • Examples of programmes/projects
  42. 42. Some examples of nutrition programmes • Programme to control vitamin A deficiency • Programme to control Iodine Deficiency disorders • Programme to control Iodine deficiency anaemia • Programme for feeding ‘at risk’ groups School feeding programmes Emergency feeding programmes Food for work programmes • Growth monitoring and promotion • Programme to improve health and productivity among farmers • Programme to improve nutritional status of women and newborn babies • Programmes to promote and advocate breastfeeding
  43. 43. Assignments: Group work (three people per group) 1. Develop a nutrition programme/project to address a certain nutrition problem of your interest • Logical framework matrix • Work plan • budget Individual assignment 2. Revisit nutrition programmes that have been implemented in Tanzania
  44. 44. THE END