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  1. 1. Enzymes made easy<br />Done by: David Li<br />
  2. 2. What is enzyme?<br />An enzyme is a catalyst<br />WTF?? What is catalyst??????<br />A catalyst is something that changes things without being changed itself. <br />A catalyst gets things going. It makes things happen. <br />For example a CEO of a construction company, he gets people build things, but he does not build himself. He is a catalyst<br />
  3. 3. What is enzyme<br />Enzymes are the catalysts for chemical reactions. <br />They either make them happen or speed them up. <br />Chemical reactions keep our bodies going, without them, we’d die. S-I-M-P-L-E.<br />
  4. 4. Substrates<br />Each enzyme will only work on certain specific substances.<br />The substances they work on are called substrates.<br />A good description is a keyhole and a key, when the right key meets the right keyhole, chemical reactions happen.<br />
  5. 5. Action/Reaction Site<br />The place where the right enzyme binds itself to the right substrate. It is called the active site of the enzyme. <br />Action Site<br /> - The region that binds the substrate, and then carries out the reaction.<br />
  6. 6. Process of reaction<br />The enzyme attaches itself to the substrate at its active site.<br />A reaction begins<br />The substrate is changed. <br />The reaction stops.<br />The enzyme lets go. It is regenerated. But the substrate has been changed forever.<br />The substrate is now called the product.<br />
  7. 7. Equilibrium<br />The enzyme wants to turn itself back into its original chemicals after a reaction. There is a point where chemical reaction complete and point where it tries to turn back meet and cancel each other out. <br />At this point, the rate of the first reaction and the second reaction are equal. The product becomes stable. This is called the point of equilibrium. <br />
  8. 8. Simple and Complex enzymes<br />Most enzymes require the presence of other compounds (cofactors) before they can act as catalysts. <br />There are two different kinds of enzymes<br />Enzymes which contains mostly of protein or made of protein only are considered simple enzymes<br />
  9. 9. Simple and Complex enzymes<br />Enzymes that contain other things are called holoenzymes, also called complex enzymes<br />A holoenzyme has two parts. <br /> - The protein part is called the apoenzyme. <br /> - The other part is called the coenzyme. <br />However, simple and complex enzymes work in much the same way<br />
  10. 10. Things that affect their performance<br />Temperature- Proteins change shape as their temperature changes. This affects the “keyhole and key” fit we described earlier. So if the enzyme changes its shape, it can’t work.<br />pH Levels - For example, if you did an experiment where you changed the pH level from 7 to 6 and more product was formed, that would prove that the enzyme was a more active conformation (worked better) at pH6.  <br />
  11. 11. Things that affect their performance<br />Activators - Sometimes you need an enzyme to work faster and your body creates something to make it do so – it activates it. That’s an activator. One example is to eat a candy bar to give yourself energy.<br />
  12. 12. Things that affect their performance<br />Inhibitors - They are the opposite of activators. They slow the chemical reaction down or even stop it altogether. The chemical reactions that enzymes create are what keep us alive. Unfortunately, they can also make us sick. But if those reactions can be stopped or slowed, we get well. This is an important thing to take notice<br />
  13. 13. Inhibitors<br />Examples of inhibitors - <br /> - antibiotics<br /> - Celebrax (a type of medicine for arthritis)<br /> - Fermentation<br /> - Alcoholic Beverages<br />
  14. 14. Types of inhibitors<br />Irreversible enzyme inhibitors - like cyanide and other poison, these are life threatening and do not have much opportunity for beneficial drug research<br />Reversible enzyme inhibitors - The hallmark of all reversible enzyme inhibitors is when the inhibitor concentration drops, enzyme activity is regenerated. These reversible enzyme inhibitors are divided into two groups<br />Next slide for more info<br />
  15. 15. Reversible Enzyme Inhibitors<br />Competitive– These enzyme inhibitors are called competitive because they compete with the substrate for binding at the active site of the enzyme. Most enzyme inhibitor drugs are competitive enzyme inhibitors. <br />Non-competitive- these inhibitors bind at places other than the active site of the enzyme so they don’t compete with the substrate.<br />
  16. 16. ~ Activities!! ~<br />I have done a worksheet to help people to remember the facts better. It should be sent along with other things.<br />
  17. 17. ~ Thank you!! ~<br />