Interactive Digital Media

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Apresentação de suporte às aulas da unidade curricular de Sistemas de Informação Multimédia da Licenciatura em Engenharia Informática da Universidade Lusófona do Porto

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Interactive Digital Media

  1. 1. Multimedia Information Systems Interactive Media and Interaction Styles
  2. 2. Part 1 Interactive media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  3. 3. Contents  Etymology  Essential characteristics  The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view  Technology acceptance models  Digital natives and digital immigrants The Millennials  Innovation adoption stages  A look into the future  Related careers David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  4. 4. The humanities  1978 Computing in the humanities is a field dominated by amateurs, in the best sense of this word. Nothing forces a critic to put texts on a computer; no composer is compelled to seek the aid of a machine; even the programmers employed on this kind of project are likely to be there by inclination rather than by accident. Economic motives are also largely absent: in general, nobody makes or saves money by using computers for such applications, and only occasionally can the machine save time. David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  5. 5. Immersed  2010 Interactive technologies are all around us… Paying bills Buying food Fueling our cars Opening doors Global positioning systems Closed-circuit television Electronically recorded transactions Mobile phones Social networks Information rivers David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  6. 6. Immersed  2010 Interactive technologies are all around us… Touch and multi-touch displays David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  7. 7. Immersed  2010 Interactive technologies are all around us… Augmented reality David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  8. 8. Immersed  2010 Interactive technologies are all around us… Ambient intelligence David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  9. 9. Interactive media  Inter Among, between  Action The fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim  Media The plural form of medium, an agency or means of doing something, something we use to communicate with David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  10. 10. Interactive media  Interactive media is… The integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes Related to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user’s actions by presenting content such as text, graphics, animation, video, audio, etc…  Interactive media… allows users to participate and edit the content David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  11. 11. Interactive media  But some argue that interactive media is not… limited to electronic media or digital media They include board games, pop-up books and flip might be also considered examples of printed interactive media Some will even argue that books with a simple table of contents or index may be considered interactive due to the non-linear control mechanism in the medium… David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  12. 12. Interactive media  And interactive media is not… New media On one hand, interactive media enables the dynamic life of the new media content and its interactive relationship with the prosumers On the other, interactive media might just be use to “update” older media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  13. 13. Essential characteristics  Interactive media retains some of the qualities of both artistic media and mass media However, the very nature of these older media forms has been subjected to change by the qualities of computing devices  With the relationship between old and new interactive media in mind It is important to establish the fundamental characteristics of which aspects of old media still apply to interactive media and more importantly, what is new about interactive media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  14. 14. Essential characteristics  The technological convergence of multiple media Intermedia Multimedia hypermedia Generative content creation  The digitization, abstraction and simulation of old media Increased fidelity Quality of representation Non-linearity Immediacy  The interactive authoring and interpretation of meaning Interaction with and through the enabling technology Relating production and interpretation David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  15. 15. Essential characteristics  The fact is that… Interactive media is changing the way in which we relate to our surroundings by changing the nature of the media that we are already familiar with One should ask, how do we establish what these changes and the resulting characteristics of interactive media are? But today, we will only try to further elaborate on the environmental thesis versus the anti-deterministic view problem David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  16. 16. The environmental thesis  For McLuhan (1967) we are metaphorically fish that are unaware of the mediating water that surrounds us Fish of course, having evolved to be perfectly adapted to the life in the medium of water, are not aware of its existence Water is the ecological niche into which they were born into David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  17. 17. The anti-deterministic view  For Williams (1974) it is human agency and the activities of societies and cultures that affect the nature of technology, not the other way around In this case… Technology is always developed with some human need or intention in mind It is aimed at solving some problem or improving some pre- existing social situation People are always in control of its development David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  18. 18. Technology acceptance model David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Davis F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quartely, 13/1989, pp. 319–339.
  19. 19. Extension of the acceptance model David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F. D. 2000. Theoretical extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46: 2, pp. 186–204.
  20. 20. Unified theory of acceptance and use David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.
  21. 21. Basic acceptance model concepts David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. and Davis, F. D. 2003. User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 27. No. 3, September, pp. 425–478.
  22. 22. Digital natives  Digital natives grew up using digital technology, and they’re often acting as guides for digital immigrants They are typically Millennials David Lamas, ULP, 2010 http://abm.typepad.com/mediapace/2008/07/index.html
  23. 23. Millennials?  Also named… Generation Now has been used as well to reflect the urge for instant- gratification that technology has imparted Computer Generation Generation D for Digital Generation M for Millennium or Multi-Task Net Gen a shortened form of Net Generation David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  24. 24. Millennials?  Some interesting facts… 97% own a computer 94% own a cell phone 76% use Instant Messaging 15% of IM users are logged on 24/7 34% use Web sites as their primary source of news 28% own a blog and 44% read blogs 49% download music using peer-to-peer file sharing 75% of college students have a Facebook account 60% own some type of portable music or video device such as an iPod David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  25. 25. Digital immigrants  Digital immigrants like their information delivered in a linear, logical sequence, but digital natives prefer random access to hyperlinked information They already entered the digital world as adults David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  26. 26. Innovation adoption stages David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1995. The diffusion of innovations. Fourth edition. New York. Free Press.
  27. 27. Innovation adoption stages  Innovators Innovators are the first individuals to adopt an innovation. Innovators are willing to take risks, youngest in age, have the highest social class, have great financial lucidity, very social and have closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators. Risk tolerance has them adopting technologies which may ultimately fail. Financial resources help absorb these failures. David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  28. 28. Innovation adoption stages  Early Adopters This is the second fastest category of individuals who adopt an innovation. These individuals have the highest degree of opinion leadership among the other adopter categories. Early adopters are typically younger in age, have a higher social status, have more financial lucidity, advanced education, and are more socially forward than late adopters. More discrete in adoption choices than innovators. Realize judicious choice of adoption will help them maintain central communication position. David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  29. 29. Innovation adoption stages  Early Majority Individuals in this category adopt an innovation after a varying degree of time. This time of adoption is significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters. Early Majority tend to be slower in the adoption process, have above average social status, contact with early adopters, and seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system. David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  30. 30. Innovation adoption stages  Late Majority Individuals in this category will adopt an innovation after the average member of the society. These individuals approach an innovation with a high degree of skepticism and after the majority of society has adopted the innovation. Late Majority are typically skeptical about an innovation, have below average social status, very little financial lucidity, in contact with others in late majority and early majority, very little opinion leadership. David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  31. 31. Innovation adoption stages  Laggards Individuals in this category are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on “traditions”, have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends, very little to no opinion leadership. David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Rogers, E. M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe: Free Press.
  32. 32. Innovation adoption chasm David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Moore, G. A. 1999. Crossing the Chasm. Second Edition. Capstone Publishing, Oxford.
  33. 33. A look into the future  Five powerful trends Most growth in the interactive media market will occur outside of today’s high income, or “advanced,” economies Global governance of the Internet will remain substantially unchanged Digital natives will relate to the Internet in markedly different ways than earlier generations The QWERTY keyboard will not be the primary interface with the Internet Consumers will pay for Internet connectivity in a much wider range of ways (with flat pricing a rarity) David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  34. 34. A look into the future  Three areas of uncertainty Will broadband network build-out be extensive as a result of the combined effect of private and public investment, or more limited? Will technological progress be characterized more by breakthroughs or mostly represent incremental advances? Will user behavior, including the appetite for ever-richer interactive media applications, lead to demand growth being unbridled or more constrained? David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  35. 35. A look into the future  Four possible scenarios Fluid frontiers A world in which the Internet becomes pervasive and centrifugal Technology continues to make connectivity and devices more and more affordable, in spite of limited investment in network build-out, while global entrepreneurship and fierce competition ensure that the wide range of needs and demands from across the world are met quickly and from equally diverse setups and locations David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  36. 36. A look into the future  Four possible scenarios Insecure growth A world in which users, individuals and business alike, are inhibited from intensive reliance on the Internet Relentless cyber attacks driven by wide-ranging motivations defy the preventive capabilities of governments and international bodies Secure alternatives emerge, but they are expensive David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  37. 37. A look into the future  Four possible scenarios Short of the promise A frugal world in which prolonged economic stagnation in many countries takes its toll on the spread of the Internet Technology offers no compensating breakthroughs, and protectionist policy responses to economic weakness make matters worse both in economic terms and with regard to network technology adoption David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  38. 38. A look into the future  Four possible scenarios Bursting at the seams A world in which the Internet becomes a victim of its own success Demand for IP-based services is boundless, but capacity constraints and occasional bottlenecks create a gap between the expectations and reality of Internet use Meanwhile, international technology standards don’t come to pass, in part because of a global backlash against decades of U.S. technology dominance David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Monitor Global Business Network and Cisco. 2010. A Look Ahead to 2025 by Cisco and Monitor's Global Business Network.
  39. 39. Related careers David Lamas, ULP, 2010 http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/
  40. 40. Related careers David Lamas, ULP, 2010 http://www.skillset.org/interactive/careers/ Where the bars fade out, this indicates that career progression usually requires moving into a different role at this point - typically to one that is adjacent or nearby on the diagram above Where the bars do not fade out, this indicates that career progression is possible within the role, with increasingly senior positions usually being available
  41. 41. Interactive media recap  Etymology  Essential characteristics  The environmental thesis and the anti-deterministic view  Technology acceptance models  Digital natives and digital immigrants The Millennials  Innovation adoption stages  A look into the future  Related careers David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  42. 42. One final question  So… do we drive or are we driven by the development of interactive media? Does any of the initially presented models prevail? Does the answer depend on our digital citizenship status? David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  43. 43. Product life cycle David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  44. 44. Part II Interaction styles David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  45. 45. Contents  Etymology  The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles  The technological hype cycle and adoption timings  Related knowledge domains  Beyond interacting with digital media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  46. 46. Personal computing  1978 It is generally thought that a computer must cost under USD 1000.00 to have mass-market appeal. A machine at that price today is a minimal computer system. It has as little as 8KB of user memory, uses audio cassettes for mass storage, and has a CRT display for output. Today’s computer is programmed in BASC. Small amounts of application software are available on cassettes. David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  47. 47. Data storage  1978 A new approach to storing data in computers, using a tunable dye laser, is described in US Patent 4,101,976 awarded to scientists at IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Based on a photochemical process called ‘hole burning’, the new system provides a unique method for increasing the amount of information that can be packed into a given space. David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  48. 48. Mobile computing  1994 Recent advances in technology have provided portable computers with wireless interfaces that allow networked communication even while a user is mobile. Whereas today’s first-generation notebook computers and personal digital assistants are self-contained, networked mobile computers are part of a greater infrastructure. Mobile computing will very likely revolutionize the way we use computers. David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  49. 49. Interaction styles  Inter Among, between  Action the fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim  Interaction Reciprocal action or influence Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect  Style A manner of doing something A way of painting, a way of writing… A way of interacting David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  50. 50. Interaction styles  In our case… Ways of interacting with and through interactive media Ways of communicating with and by means of computerized environments David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  51. 51. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  52. 52. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  53. 53. Main interaction styles  Command line interfaces  Graphical user interfaces  Natural user interfaces David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  54. 54. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  55. 55. Physical programming David Lamas, ULP, 2010 In the beginning it was all about interacting with the computer
  56. 56. Card punching and reading David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Batch processing
  57. 57. A teletypewriter David Lamas, ULP, 2010 The birth of the Command Line Interface
  58. 58. Early graphic workstation David Lamas, ULP, 2010 An initial Graphic User Interface
  59. 59. A mouse prototype David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Invented by Douglas Engelbart
  60. 60. A video-display unit David Lamas, ULP, 2010 The oN-Line System featuring a display, a keyboard and mouse
  61. 61. The oN-Line System  …or the Augmentation of Human Intellect A system envisioned by Douglas Engelbart, to help Increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: more-rapid comprehension, better comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that before seemed insolvable Complex situations we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers--whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years… David Lamas, ULP, 2010 http://www.dougengelbart.org/pubs/augment-3906.html
  62. 62. The oN-Line System  The system was called oN-Line System, because it was also networked between multiple computers Computers were no longer isolated  The display system was based on vector graphics technology and could display both text and solid lines on the same screen  Because of limited memory space in the mainframe computer, it could only display upper-case characters, although true upper-case was displayed by the use of a short horizontal line directly above any capitalized letters David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  63. 63. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  64. 64. The Xerox Alto David Lamas, ULP, 2010 The Alto was not a microcomputer as such, although its components did fit under a desk
  65. 65. The Xerox Star David Lamas, ULP, 2010 The Star had some differences from the Alto, most significantly the ability to overlap windows was removed as it was thought too confusing for the general public…
  66. 66. The Apple Lisa David Lamas, ULP, 2010 The Lisa user interface invented some of the Graphical User Interface concepts we still use today. Icons could represent all files in the system and the drag and drop was used for file
  67. 67. The Apple Macintosh David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  68. 68. The Apple Macintosh David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  69. 69. Other early graphic user interfaces David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  70. 70. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  71. 71. A graphic user interface timeline  Examples of graphic user interface styles are… Menu selection Forms fill-in Direct manipulation Metaphors (ie. The desktop) Web navigation David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  72. 72. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  73. 73. The evolution of computing David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano- informatique et intelligence ambiante: inventer l'ordinateur du XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007
  74. 74. Natural user interfaces  …is the common designation used by designers and developers of computer interfaces to refer to a user interface that is effectively invisible, or becomes invisible with successive learned interactions, to its users The word natural is used because most computer interfaces use artificial control devices whose operation has to be learned Such an interface relies on a user being able to carry out relatively natural motions, movements or gestures that they quickly discover control the computer application or manipulate the on-screen content David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  75. 75. Natural user interfaces  The most distinct identifier of a natural user interface is the lack of a physical keyboard and or mouse Hence, the most common examples are… (multi-)touch interfaces; and voice-operated interfaces  The natural user interface removes the metaphors, and many of the artificially learned devices, to allow users to more directly manipulate content using more natural movements, motions and gestures  Enthusiast defend that these interfaces are fast to learn and, as such, freely apply the adjective 'intuitive’ to describe how users interact with them David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  76. 76. Perceptive pixel David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  77. 77. Microsoft Surface David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  78. 78. Xbox Kinect David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  79. 79. Natural user interfaces are… not natural  According to Don Norman Fundamental principles of knowledge of results, feedback, and a good conceptual model still rule The strength of the graphical user interface has little to do with its use of graphics It has to do with the ease of remembering actions, both in what actions are possible and how to invoke them Visible icons and visible menus are the mechanisms, and despite the well-known problems of scaling up to the demands of modern complex systems, they still allow one to explore and learn The important design rule of a GUI is visibility: through the menus, all possible actions can be made visible and, therefore, easily discoverable. The system can often be learned through exploration Systems that avoid these well-known methods suffer. Are natural user interfaces natural? No, he says, but they will be useful. David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  80. 80. Other user interfaces David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  81. 81. Other user interfaces David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  82. 82. Other user interfaces David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  83. 83. Technological hype cycle David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R- 20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.
  84. 84. Technological hype cycle David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  85. 85. Technological hype cycle and adoption timings David Lamas, ULP, 2010 Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R-20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.
  86. 86. Related knowledge domains  Human-computer interaction The study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings Recent advances in mobile, ubiquitous, social, and tangible computing technologies have moved human-computer interaction into practically all areas of human activity This has led to a shift away from the usual stress on usability to a much richer scope of user experience, where user's feelings, motivations, and values are given as much, if not more, attention than efficiency, effectiveness and basic subjective satisfaction David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  87. 87. Related knowledge domains  Interaction design A design discipline dedicated to defining the behavior of artifacts, environments and systems  User experience design The field of user experience was established to cover the holistic perspective to how a person feels about using a system The focus is on pleasure and value rather than on performance David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  88. 88. Human-computer interaction David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  89. 89. Human-computer interaction David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  90. 90. Interaction design David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  91. 91. User experience design David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  92. 92. User experience design David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  93. 93. But…  Interactivity is not limited to technological systems People have been interacting with each other as long as humans have been a species From this broader viewpoint, reasoning about interaction styles should also address the interaction between human beings by means of a interactive media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  94. 94. Interaction styles recap  Etymology  The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles  The technological hype cycle and adoption timings  Related knowledge domains  Beyond interacting with digital media David Lamas, ULP, 2010
  95. 95. Two final questions  How do you see the evolution of interacting with and through interactive media? Are natural user interfaces the future or part of the future? Are the previous interaction styles dead or condemned?  Should mobile user interfaces be regarded as a completely new interaction style? If so, what would their distinctive characteristics be? David Lamas, ULP, 2010

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