Interaction styles

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Slides from the Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media course of the Interactive Media and Knowledge Environments master program (Tallinn University).

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Interaction styles

  1. 1. Introduction and Theoretical Foundations of New Media<br />Interaction Styles<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Etymology<br />The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles<br />The technological hype cycle and adoption timings<br />Related knowledge domains<br />Beyond interacting with digital media<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Personal computing<br />1978<br />It is generally thought that a computer must cost under USD 1000.00 to have mass-market appeal. A machine at that price today is a minimal computer system. It has as little as 8KB of user memory, uses audio cassettes for mass storage, and has a CRT display for output. Today’s computer is programmed in BASC. Small amounts of application software are available on cassettes.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Data storage<br />1978<br />A new approach to storing data in computers, using a tunable dye laser, is described in US Patent 4,101,976 awarded to scientists at IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Based on a photochemical process called ‘hole burning’, the new system provides a unique method for increasing the amount of information that can be packed into a given space.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Mobile computing<br />1994<br />Recent advances in technology have provided portable computers with wireless interfaces that allow networked communication even while a user is mobile. Whereas today’s first-generation notebook computers and personal digital assistants are self-contained, networked mobile computers are part of a greater infrastructure. Mobile computing will very likely revolutionize the way we use computers.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Interaction styles<br />Inter<br />Among, between<br />Action<br />the fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim <br />Interaction<br />Reciprocal action or influence<br />Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another<br /> The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal effect<br />Style<br />A manner of doing something<br />A way of painting, a way of writing…<br /> A way of interacting<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />
  7. 7. Interaction styles<br />In our case…<br />Ways of interacting with and through interactive media<br />Ways of communicating with and by means of computerized environments <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />8<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  9. 9. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />9<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  10. 10. Main interaction styles<br />Command line interfaces<br />Graphical user interfaces<br />Natural user interfaces<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />11<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  12. 12. Physical programming<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />12<br />In the beginning it was<br />all about interacting <br />with the computer<br />
  13. 13. Card punching and reading<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />13<br />Batch processing<br />
  14. 14. A teletypewriter <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />14<br />The birth of the Command<br />Line Interface <br />
  15. 15. Early graphic workstation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />15<br />An initial Graphic<br />User Interface <br />
  16. 16. A mouse prototype<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />16<br />Invented by<br />Douglas Engelbart<br />
  17. 17. A video-display unit<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />17<br />The oN-Line System <br />featuring a display, <br />a keyboard and mouse<br />
  18. 18. The oN-Line System<br />…or the Augmentation of Human Intellect<br />A system envisioned by Douglas Engelbart, to help Increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems<br />Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: more-rapid comprehension, better comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that before seemed insolvable <br />Complex situations we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers--whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years…<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />18<br />http://www.dougengelbart.org/pubs/augment-3906.html<br />
  19. 19. The oN-Line System<br />The system was called oN-Line System, because it was also networked between multiple computers<br />Computers were no longer isolated<br />The display system was based on vector graphics technology and could display both text and solid lines on the same screen<br />Because of limited memory space in the mainframe computer, it could only display upper-case characters, although true upper-case was displayed by the use of a short horizontal line directly above any capitalized letters<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />19<br />
  20. 20. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />20<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  21. 21. The Xerox Alto<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />21<br />The Alto was not a microcomputer as such, although its components did fit under a desk<br />
  22. 22. The Xerox Star<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />22<br />The Star had some differences from the Alto, most significantly the ability to overlap windows was removed as it was thought too confusing for the general public…<br />
  23. 23. The Apple Lisa<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />23<br />The Lisa user interface invented some of the Graphical User Interface concepts we still use today. Icons could represent all files in the system and the drag and drop was used for file<br />
  24. 24. The Apple Macintosh<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />24<br />
  25. 25. The Apple Macintosh<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Other early graphic user interfaces<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />26<br />
  27. 27. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />27<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  28. 28. A graphic user interface timeline<br />Examples of graphic user interface styles are…<br />Menu selection<br />Forms fill-in<br />Direct manipulation<br />Metaphors (ie. The desktop)<br />Web navigation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />28<br />
  29. 29. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />29<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  30. 30. The evolution of computing<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />30<br />Waldner, J-B. 2007. Nano-informatiqueet intelligence ambiante: inventerl'ordinateurdu XXIe siècle. Hermes Science Publications, 2007<br />
  31. 31. Natural user interfaces<br />…is the common designation used by designers and developers of computer interfaces to refer to a user interface that is effectively invisible, or becomes invisible with successive learned interactions, to its users<br />The word natural is used because most computer interfaces use artificial control devices whose operation has to be learned<br />Such an interface relies on a user being able to carry out relatively natural motions, movements or gestures that they quickly discover control the computer application or manipulate the on-screen content<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Natural user interfaces<br />The most distinct identifier of a natural user interface is the lack of a physical keyboard and or mouse<br />Hence, the most common examples are…<br />(multi-)touch interfaces; and<br />voice-operated interfaces<br />The natural user interface removes the metaphors, and many of the artificially learned devices, to allow users to more directly manipulate content using more natural movements, motions and gestures<br />Enthusiast defend that these interfaces are fast to learn and, as such, freely apply the adjective 'intuitive’ to describe how users interact with them<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Perceptive pixel<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Microsoft Surface<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Xbox Kinect<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Natural user interfaces are… not natural<br />According to Don Norman<br />Fundamental principles of knowledge of results, feedback, and a good conceptual model still rule<br />The strength of the graphical user interface has little to do with its use of graphics<br />It has to do with the ease of remembering actions, both in what actions are possible and how to invoke them<br />Visible icons and visible menus are the mechanisms, and despite the well-known problems of scaling up to the demands of modern complex systems, they still allow one to explore and learn<br />The important design rule of a GUI is visibility: through the menus, all possible actions can be made visible and, therefore, easily discoverable. The system can often be learned through exploration<br />Systems that avoid these well-known methods suffer.<br />Are natural user interfaces natural? No, he says, but they will be useful.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />36<br />
  37. 37. Other user interfaces<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />37<br />
  38. 38. Other user interfaces<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />38<br />
  39. 39. Other user interfaces<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />39<br />
  40. 40. Technological hype cycle<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />40<br />Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R-20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.<br />
  41. 41. Technological hype cycle<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />41<br />
  42. 42. Technological hype cycle and adoption timings<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />42<br />Linden, A. and Fenn, J. 2003. Understanding Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R-20-1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner Research.<br />
  43. 43. Related knowledge domains<br />Human-computer interaction<br />The study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings<br /> Recent advances in mobile, ubiquitous, social, and tangible computing technologies have moved human-computer interaction into practically all areas of human activity<br />This has led to a shift away from the usual stress on usability to a much richer scope of user experience, where user's feelings, motivations, and values are given as much, if not more, attention than efficiency, effectiveness and basic subjective satisfaction<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Related knowledge domains<br />Interaction design<br />A design discipline dedicated to defining the behavior of artifacts, environments and systems<br />User experience design<br />The field of user experience was established to cover the holistic perspective to how a person feels about using a system<br /> The focus is on pleasure and value rather than on performance<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Human-computer interaction<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />45<br />
  46. 46. Human-computer interaction<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />46<br />
  47. 47. Interaction design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />47<br />
  48. 48. User experience design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />48<br />
  49. 49. User experience design<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />49<br />
  50. 50. But…<br />Interactivityis not limited to technological systems<br />People have been interacting with each other as long as humans have been a species<br />From this broader viewpoint, reasoning about interaction styles should also address the interaction between human beings by means of a interactive media<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />50<br />
  51. 51. Interaction styles recap<br />Etymology<br />The relation between the evolution of computing and the main interaction styles<br />The technological hype cycle and adoption timings<br />Related knowledge domains<br />Beyond interacting with digital media<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />51<br />
  52. 52. Two final questions<br />How do you see the evolution of interacting with and through interactive media?<br />Are natural user interfaces the future or part of the future?<br />Are the previous interaction styles dead or condemned?<br />Should mobile user interfaces be regarded as a completely new interaction style?<br />If so, what would their distinctive characteristics be?<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2011<br />52<br />

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