Accessibility, Usability and User Centred Design (User centred design)


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Accessibility, Usability and User Centred Design (User centred design)

  1. 1. AccessibilityUsabilityUser centred design<br />User centred design<br />3<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Initial concepts<br />Accessibility, usability and UCD<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Initial concepts<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />
  4. 4. User centred design<br />So… what is user centred design?<br />It’s a design philosophy that believes that real users and their goals, not just technology, should be the driving force behind the development of a service or product<br />Its three main principles are:<br />(stated as early as 1985 by Gould and Lewis)<br />Early focus on users and tasks<br />Empirical measurement<br />Iterative design <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />
  5. 5. User centred design<br />Early focus on users and tasks<br />This means understanding who the users will be by directly studying their cognitive, behavioural, anthropomorphic and attitudinal characteristics<br />This requires<br />Observing users doing their normal task<br />Studying the nature of those tasks<br />Involving users in the design process<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />5<br />
  6. 6. User centred design<br />Early focus on users and tasks further means…<br />Asking “what technologies are available to provide better support to users’ goals” rather than asking “where can we deploy this new technology”<br />Understanding behaviour highlighting priorities, preferences and implicit intensions<br />One argument against studying current behaviour is that we are looking to improve how things work, not to capture bad habits<br />Supporting human cognitive and physical characteristics<br />Cognitive aspects include attention, memory and perception<br />Physical aspects include height, mobility and strength<br />Consulting users throughout the design and development iterations<br />And taking their input seriously into account<br />Taking all design decisions within the context of the users, their work and their environment<br />This does not mean that users are actively involved in design decisions but rather that designers remain aware of the users while making their decisions<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />6<br />
  7. 7. User centred design<br />Empirical measurement<br />This means that the reactions and performance of intended users to…<br />printed scenarios<br />manuals and help systems<br />simulations<br />prototypes<br />…should be observed, measured and analysed as early in the design and development process as possible<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />7<br />
  8. 8. User centred design<br />Iterative design<br />This means that design and development should be iterative with cycles of design, test, measure, redesign being repeated as often as necessary<br />This way, when problems are found in user testing, they are fixed and then more tests and observations are carried out to see the effects of the fixes<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Interaction design<br />User centred interaction design is based on four basic activities:<br />Identifying needs and establishing requirements for the user experience<br />In order to design something to support people, we must know who our target users are and what kind of support an interactive product could usefully provide<br />Developing alternative designs that meet those requirements<br />Actually supplying ideas for meeting the requirements is the core activity of designing<br />Building interactive versions of the designs<br />Evaluating what is being built throughout the process and the user experience it offers<br />Evaluation is the process of determining the usability and acceptability of a service or product<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Interaction design<br />But… how do we go about these four basic activities?<br />Understanding what activities are involved in user centred interaction design is important but so it is to understand how the activities are related to one another so that the full development process can be perceived<br />There are a number of lifecycle models that capture a set of activities and hoe the are related<br />Waterfall lifecycle model<br />Spiral lifecycle model<br />Dynamic systems development lifecycle model<br />Agile development lifecycle model<br />Star lifecycle model<br />Usability engineering lifecycle model<br />Human-centred design lifecycle model<br />ISO 13407<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Interaction design<br />And lifecycle models are important…<br />They allow designers, developers and particularly managers to get an overall view of the foreseen or ongoing effort<br />So that progress can be tracked, deliverables specified, resources allocated, targets set, etc.<br />Existing models have varying levels of sophistication and complexity<br />But using them does not mean that innovation is lost or that creativity is compromised<br />They are just a simplified version of reality<br />And as with any good abstraction, only the amount of detail required for the task at hand should be included<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Interaction design<br />And lifecycle models are important…<br />Just as we can assert that no product has ever been created in a single moment of inspiration… …especially when the product is entirely new, the development of a set of requirements may well depend upon testing initial ideas in some depth.<br />W. H. Mayall, Principles of Design, 1979<br />The plan is the generator. Without a plan, you have lack of order and wilfulness. The plan holds in itself the essence of sensation<br />Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture, 1931 <br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Methods<br />Now we have user centred interaction design…<br />principles<br />activities<br />lifecycles<br />What’s missing?<br />The methods<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Methods<br />Empirical methods<br />Card sorting, contextual enquiry, focus groups, interview, log file analysis, paper prototype test, survey, task analysis, live prototype test<br />Inspection methods<br />Expert review, guided walkthrough, heuristic evaluation<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Accessibility, usability and UCD<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Accessibility<br /><ul><li>Loiacono, E. T., Romano, N. C., and McCoy, S. 2009. The state of corporate website accessibility. Commun. ACM 52, 9 (Sep. 2009), 128-132</li></ul>Patience Agabirwe<br />Norbert Kaarest<br />Monica Gakindi<br />GeroliPeedu<br />KirkeRaud<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Accessibility<br /><ul><li>Hailpern, J., Guarino-Reid, L., Boardman, R., and Annam, S. 2009. Web 2.0: blind to an accessible new world. InProceedings of the 18th international Conference on World Wide Web (Madrid, Spain, April 20 - 24, 2009). WWW '09. ACM, New York, NY, 821-830</li></ul>Lin Bian<br />Norbert Kaarest<br />IlyaShmorgun<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Accessibility<br /><ul><li>Bigham, J. P. 2007. Accessmonkey: enabling and sharing end user accessibility improvements. SIGACCESS Access. Comput. , 89 (Sep. 2007), 3-6. </li></ul>IlyaShmorgun<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Accessibility<br />Shneiderman, B., 2000. Universal Usability: pushing human-computer interaction research to empower every citizen. Communications of the ACM 43(5), pp. 85-91.<br />JakobKangur<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Accessibilty<br />Obrenovic, Z., Abascal, J. and Stracevic, S. Universal Accessibility as a Multimodal Design Issue. Communications of the ACM May 2007/Vol. 50, No. 5, p. 83-88.<br />MaarjaPajusalu<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Usability<br /><ul><li>Dicks, R. S. 2002. Mis-usability: on the uses and misuses of usability testing. In Proceedings of the 20th Annual international Conference on Computer Documentation (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 20 - 23, 2002). SIGDOC '02. ACM, New York, NY, 26-30.</li></ul>Patience Agabirwe<br />MaibrittKuuskmãe<br />Norbert Kaarest<br />IlyaShmorgun<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Usability<br /><ul><li>Gould, J. D. and Lewis, C. 1985. Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think. Commun. ACM 28, 3 (Mar. 1985), 300-311. </li></ul>Monica Gakindi<br />IlyaShmorgun<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Usability<br /><ul><li>Hollingsed, T. and Novick, D. G. 2007. Usability inspection methods after 15 years of research and practice. InProceedings of the 25th Annual ACM international Conference on Design of Communication (El Paso, Texas, USA, October 22 - 24, 2007). SIGDOC '07. ACM, New York, NY, 249-255.</li></ul>JakobKangur<br />Monica Gakindi<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Sauro, J., Kindlund, E. A Method to Standardize Usability Metrics Into a Single Score. CHI Papers: Methods and Usability. April 2-7 2005 Portland, Oregon, Usa.<br />MaarjaPajusalu<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Usability<br /><ul><li>Hornbæk, K. and Frøkjær, E. 2008. Making use of business goals in usability evaluation: an experiment with novice evaluators. In Proceeding of the Twenty-Sixth Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems(Florence, Italy, April 05 - 10, 2008). CHI '08. ACM, New York, NY, 903-912. </li></ul>Lin Bian<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />25<br />
  26. 26. Usability<br /><ul><li>Als, B. S., Jensen, J. J., and Skov, M. B. 2005. Comparison of think-aloud and constructive interaction in usability testing with children. In Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on interaction Design and Children (Boulder, Colorado, June 08 - 10, 2005). IDC '05. ACM, New York, NY, 9-16. </li></ul>Lin Bian<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Contents<br />Initial concepts<br />Accessibility, usability and UCD<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Suggested viewing<br />Designing Interactions<br />Bill Moggridge talk at Stanford University<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Elective readings<br />Williams, A. 2009. User-centered design, activity-centered design, and goal-directed design: a review of three methods for designing web applications. In Proceedings of the 27th ACM international Conference on Design of Communication (Bloomington, Indiana, USA, October 05 - 07, 2009). SIGDOC '09. ACM, New York, NY, 1-8.<br />Mao, J., Vredenburg, K., Smith, P. W., and Carey, T. 2001. User-centered design methods in practice: a survey of the state of the art. In Proceedings of the 2001 Conference of the Centre For Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 05 - 07, 2001). D. A. Stewart and J. H. Johnson, Eds. IBM Centre for Advanced Studies Conference. IBM Press, 12.<br />Jokela, T., Iivari, N., Matero, J., and Karukka, M. 2003. The standard of user-centered design and the standard definition of usability: analyzing ISO 13407 against ISO 9241-11. In Proceedings of the Latin American Conference on Human-Computer interaction (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 17 - 20, 2003). CLIHC '03, vol. 46. ACM, New York, NY, 53-60.<br />Kujala, S. and Kauppinen, M. 2004. Identifying and selecting users for user-centered design. In Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer interaction (Tampere, Finland, October 23 - 27, 2004). NordiCHI '04, vol. 82. ACM, New York, NY, 297-303.<br />Mao, J., Vredenburg, K., Smith, P. W., and Carey, T. 2005. The state of user-centered design practice. Commun. ACM 48, 3 (Mar. 2005), 105-109.<br />Kiris, E. 2004. User-centered eService design and redesign. In CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Vienna, Austria, April 24 - 29, 2004). CHI '04. ACM, New York, NY, 990-1003.<br />Ungar, J. and White, J. 2008. Agile user centered design: enter the design studio - a case study. In CHI '08 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Florence, Italy, April 05 - 10, 2008). CHI '08. ACM, New York, NY, 2167-2178.<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Further readings<br />Sharp et al. 2007. Interaction Design, Wiley<br />Shneiderman and Plaisant 2010. Designing the User Interface, Addison Wesley<br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Relevant links<br />ACM’s special interest group on computer human interaction<br /><br />Usability Professionals Association<br /><br />David Lamas, TLU, 2010<br />31<br />