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Which matches your experience of organisational digital technology?
A
B
http://bit.ly/dtYourExp
Please complete
our poll
A
a tool that is: used when and where permitted;
standardised and preconfigured; conforms to
institutional rather than ind...
B
http://bit.ly/dtYourExp
…it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a
thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand...
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
A
B
http://modernfarmer.com/2016/07/right-to-repair/
http://modernfarmer.com/2016/07/right-to-repair/
AB
A
a tool that is: used when and
where permitted; standardised
and preconfigured; conforms to
institutional rather than ind...
A
instead of optimizing our machines
for humanity…we are optimizing
humans for machinery
(Rushkoff, 2010, p. 15)
the Proteus of machines…Because
it can take on a thousand forms and
can serve a thousand functions, it
can appeal to a tho...
..protean nature of the computer…as the first
metamedium, and as such has degreees of
freedom and expression never before ...
…ordinary users to casually and easily
describe their desires for a specific tool
(Kay & Goldberg, 1977, p. 40)
B
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
Digital technologies are the new…
…coding…
…robotics…
(Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2013, p. 175)
Educators have been striving to achieve meaningful
technology use in our K-12 ...
(Zagami et al, 2016, p. 13)
…there is surely no more reliable way
to kill enthusiasm and interest in a subject
than to make it a madatory part of the
...
School boards do not understand
what math is, neither do educators,
…neither do most of our math teachers.
The problem is ...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
Lead
(von Hippel, 1986, p. 791)
are familiar with conditions which lie in the future for most others,
they can serve as a ...
Lead
SE Qld Secondary teacher
2014 & 2015
7-12 IT and Business
Proficient ICT user & developer
Business & IT diploma
Lead
Core 3rd year course
252 (59.3%) online students
4 years teacher education
Proficient ICT user and developer
BA in Co...
Intentions Affordances Invariants
(adapted from Osborne, 2014, p. 82)
Aim: Understanding real-life social phenomenon
Method: Case study – thematic
Data: Our stories of digital modification
Write stories of
digital modification
Google document
• What?
• Why?
• Outcomes?
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
Write stories of
digital modification
Google document
• What?
• Why?
• Outcomes?
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
Write stories of
digital modification
26 stories
• 10 – Elke
• 16 - David
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
Write stories of
digital modification
26 stories
• 10 – Elke
• 16 - David
Analysis
• Purpose
• Cause
• Impact
• Type of ch...
Write stories of
digital modification
26 stories
• 10 – Schneider
• 16 - Jones
Analysis
• Purpose
• Cause
• Impact
• Type ...
Digital modification != coding
Type of modification Description
Use Tool used with no change
Internal configuration Use tool options to change tool
Exter...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
Filling holes
Improve student
learning
Mirror the real
world
Elke David
Filling holes 4 10
Improve student learning 6 6
Mirror the real world 4 3
Elke David
Filling holes 4 10
Improve student learning 6 6
Mirror the real world 4 3
Missing functionality
Excel student p...
Elke David
Filling holes 4 10
Improve student learning 6 6
Mirror the real world 4 3
Model effective practice
Enhanced ped...
Elke David
Filling holes 4 10
Improve student learning 6 6
Mirror the real world 4 3Authenticity
Student-created external ...
1
0
0
0
2
8
0
5
2
0
7
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Use
Internal configuration
External configuration
Customisation
Supplement
Repl...
1
0
0
0
2
8
0
5
2
0
7
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Use
Internal configuration
External configuration
Customisation
Supplement
Repl...
1
0
0
0
2
8
0
5
2
0
7
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Use
Internal configuration
External configuration
Customisation
Supplement
Repl...
1
0
0
0
2
8
0
5
2
0
7
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Use
Internal configuration
External configuration
Customisation
Supplement
Repl...
It has been bought to my attention that
… - David Jones - has altered the
common look and feel of StudyDesk …
Regardless o...
1
0
0
0
2
8
0
5
2
0
7
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Use
Internal configuration
External configuration
Customisation
Supplement
Repl...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
I...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Improve learning and teaching
Necessary for teachers to grok computational ...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Improve learning and teaching
Necessary for teachers to grok computational ...
Some of the tinkerability/evidence of
protean behaviour sound rather like
the old idea of a kludge – a
‘quick and dirty’ w...
…such creativity is often understood in
primarily reactive terms; it is often
predicated on an unspoken assumption
of resi...
Reusability paradox More context,
better for learning
Less context,
better for reuse
(Wiley, et. al., 2004)
Organisational...
Reusability paradox More context,
better for learning
Less context,
better for reuse
(Wiley, et. al., 2004)
Kludges, work-...
(Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007)
Technology and human agency mutually reinforce
one another rather than working at cross purpose...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Improve learning and teaching
Necessary for teachers to grok computational ...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking
When you claim to ‘gr...
Teachers first (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 453)
…they must first know how to use those technologies
for their own purpose...
easy to subvert (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 460)
…short-term professional development activities,
designed to put teacher...
Importance of (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 460)
addressing the ongoing needs of teachers
developing new kinds of alignment...
(Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007)
In ordinary life, Zaq is a bartender.
He has no training in computer science but has learned to...
(Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007)
Mods are a social resource.
Zaq shares his knowledge of LazyRogue with Jacquii.
Players discuss...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Improve learning and teaching
Necessary for teachers to grok computational ...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Improve learning and teaching
Necessary for teachers to grok computational ...
…there is surely no more reliable way
to kill enthusiasm and interest in a subject
than to make it a madatory part of the
...
School boards do not understand
what math is, neither do educators,
…neither do most of our math teachers.
The problem is ...
Fundamentally transforming the world of work and
generating new ways of doing business on a global scale
(DET, 2015, p. 11)
(Selwyn & Bulfin, 2016, p. 288)
valuing of technology as used when & where permitted
standardized and preconfigured
confor...
(Margolis et. al., 2010, p. 102)
disconnected from students’ lives devoid of real-life relevance
a chorus defining the sub...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
How can we do it?
(Grover & Pea, 2013)
Low floor, high ceiling
support “use-modify-create”
scaffolding enable transfer
support equity
Creati...
David Jones @djplaner
Elke Schneider @elketeaches
http://bit.ly/dtProtean
Department of Education and Training. (2015). #codingcounts: A discussion paper
on coding and robotics in Queensland schoo...
Kay, A. (1984). Computer Software. Scientific American, 251(3), 53–59.
Kay, A., & Goldberg, A. (1977). Personal Dynamic Me...
Nardi, B., & Kallinikos, J. (2007). Opening the Black Box of Digital Technologies: Mods in
World of Warcraft. In 23rd EGOS...
Rushkoff, D. (2010). Program or be programmed: Ten commands for a digital age. New York: OR Books.
Selwyn, N., & Bulfin, S...
Slide 1, 2, 3: "Unsure Of The Next Step" by Ariel Dovas available at http://flickr.com/photos/eviloars/4837529409
under At...
Slide 25, 53, 79: "exploring" by leisergu available at http://flickr.com/photos/leisergu/528396386 under
Attribution-NonCo...
Slide 42: "Five-Way Portrait of Marcel Duchamp (1917)" by cea + available at
http://flickr.com/photos/Cea./6795836748 unde...
Slide 58: "Window Kludge" by chrstphre ㋛ campbell available at http://flickr.com/photos/chrstphre/4838013011
under Attribu...
Slide 81: "Wicked problems 2" by Antonio Vantaggiato available at
http://flickr.com/photos/avunque/8409044888 under Attrib...
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
What if our digital technologies were protean?
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What if our digital technologies were protean?

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Presentation presented at ACCE'2016. More information available at http://bit.ly/dtProtean

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What if our digital technologies were protean?

  1. 1. Which matches your experience of organisational digital technology? A B http://bit.ly/dtYourExp Please complete our poll
  2. 2. A a tool that is: used when and where permitted; standardised and preconfigured; conforms to institutional rather than individual needs; and, a directed activity Instead of optimizing our machines for humanity… we are optimizing humans for machinery A disastrous feature-laden hodgepodge… not really suitable for anyone http://bit.ly/dtYourExp Which matches your experience of organisational digital technology?
  3. 3. B http://bit.ly/dtYourExp …it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand tastes …the first metamedium, and as such has degrees of freedom and expression never before encountered Allows ordinary users to casually and easily describe their desires for a specific tool Which matches your experience of organisational digital technology?
  4. 4. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 A B
  5. 5. http://modernfarmer.com/2016/07/right-to-repair/
  6. 6. http://modernfarmer.com/2016/07/right-to-repair/
  7. 7. AB
  8. 8. A a tool that is: used when and where permitted; standardised and preconfigured; conforms to institutional rather than individual needs; and, a directed activity (Selwyn & Bulfin, 2016, p. 288)
  9. 9. A instead of optimizing our machines for humanity…we are optimizing humans for machinery (Rushkoff, 2010, p. 15)
  10. 10. the Proteus of machines…Because it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand tastes (Papert, 1980, p. viii) B
  11. 11. ..protean nature of the computer…as the first metamedium, and as such has degreees of freedom and expression never before encountered (Kay, 1984, p. 59) B
  12. 12. …ordinary users to casually and easily describe their desires for a specific tool (Kay & Goldberg, 1977, p. 40) B
  13. 13. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching
  14. 14. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching Why? How? So what?What?
  15. 15. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching Why? How? So what?What?
  16. 16. Digital technologies are the new… …coding… …robotics…
  17. 17. (Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2013, p. 175) Educators have been striving to achieve meaningful technology use in our K-12 classroom for over 30 year …despite significant investments of time and money in infrastructure, training and support “we have few assurances that [educators] are able to use technology for teaching and learning
  18. 18. (Zagami et al, 2016, p. 13)
  19. 19. …there is surely no more reliable way to kill enthusiasm and interest in a subject than to make it a madatory part of the school curriculum. (Lockhart, 2009, p. 8)
  20. 20. School boards do not understand what math is, neither do educators, …neither do most of our math teachers. The problem is so enormous, I hardly know where to begin. (Lockhart, 2009, p. 8)
  21. 21. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching Why? How? So what?What?
  22. 22. Lead (von Hippel, 1986, p. 791) are familiar with conditions which lie in the future for most others, they can serve as a need-forecasting laboratory
  23. 23. Lead SE Qld Secondary teacher 2014 & 2015 7-12 IT and Business Proficient ICT user & developer Business & IT diploma
  24. 24. Lead Core 3rd year course 252 (59.3%) online students 4 years teacher education Proficient ICT user and developer BA in Computer Science PhD in Information Systems
  25. 25. Intentions Affordances Invariants (adapted from Osborne, 2014, p. 82)
  26. 26. Aim: Understanding real-life social phenomenon Method: Case study – thematic Data: Our stories of digital modification
  27. 27. Write stories of digital modification Google document • What? • Why? • Outcomes? http://bit.ly/dtProtean
  28. 28. Write stories of digital modification Google document • What? • Why? • Outcomes? http://bit.ly/dtProtean
  29. 29. Write stories of digital modification 26 stories • 10 – Elke • 16 - David http://bit.ly/dtProtean
  30. 30. Write stories of digital modification 26 stories • 10 – Elke • 16 - David Analysis • Purpose • Cause • Impact • Type of changehttp://bit.ly/dtProtean
  31. 31. Write stories of digital modification 26 stories • 10 – Schneider • 16 - Jones Analysis • Purpose • Cause • Impact • Type of change • Themes http://bit.ly/dtProtean
  32. 32. Digital modification != coding
  33. 33. Type of modification Description Use Tool used with no change Internal configuration Use tool options to change tool External configuration Change tool using external means Customisation Change the tool by modifying code Supplement Use another tool to offer functionality not provided by the orginal tool Replacement Use another tool to replace original tool (Adapted from Jones, Albion & Heffernan, 2016, p. 2881)
  34. 34. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching Why? How? So what?What?
  35. 35. Filling holes Improve student learning Mirror the real world
  36. 36. Elke David Filling holes 4 10 Improve student learning 6 6 Mirror the real world 4 3
  37. 37. Elke David Filling holes 4 10 Improve student learning 6 6 Mirror the real world 4 3 Missing functionality Excel student profilesElke Paper student profiles in HoD officeSchool
  38. 38. Elke David Filling holes 4 10 Improve student learning 6 6 Mirror the real world 4 3 Model effective practice Enhanced pedagogy Google formsDavid Moodle feedback activityUniversity
  39. 39. Elke David Filling holes 4 10 Improve student learning 6 6 Mirror the real world 4 3Authenticity Student-created external blogsDavid Mahara eportfolioUniversity Moodle blog
  40. 40. 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 5 2 0 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Use Internal configuration External configuration Customisation Supplement Replacement Schneider Jones
  41. 41. 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 5 2 0 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Use Internal configuration External configuration Customisation Supplement Replacement Schneider Jones Movie maker
  42. 42. 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 5 2 0 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Use Internal configuration External configuration Customisation Supplement Replacement Schneider Jones Email filters
  43. 43. 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 5 2 0 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Use Internal configuration External configuration Customisation Supplement Replacement Schneider Jones Changing links
  44. 44. It has been bought to my attention that … - David Jones - has altered the common look and feel of StudyDesk … Regardless of David's motives, clearly this is a breach of policy… …to hack the action of…The hack… he has also publicised this hack publicly on his blog. The reason this has come to our attention is that he has not been able to make this hack fully functional and has asked for…help to fix it.
  45. 45. 1 0 0 0 2 8 0 5 2 0 7 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Use Internal configuration External configuration Customisation Supplement Replacement Schneider Jones Edublogs
  46. 46. What if our digital technologies were protean? David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean Implications for computational thinking, learning and teaching Why? How? So what?What?
  47. 47. What if our digital technologies were protean? Improve learning and teaching Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  48. 48. What if our digital technologies were protean? Improve learning and teaching Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  49. 49. Some of the tinkerability/evidence of protean behaviour sound rather like the old idea of a kludge – a ‘quick and dirty’ workaround
  50. 50. …such creativity is often understood in primarily reactive terms; it is often predicated on an unspoken assumption of resistance that depicts human agents as seeking to work around software, rather than work with it in harmony (Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007)
  51. 51. Reusability paradox More context, better for learning Less context, better for reuse (Wiley, et. al., 2004) Organisational digital technologies
  52. 52. Reusability paradox More context, better for learning Less context, better for reuse (Wiley, et. al., 2004) Kludges, work-arounds (Koopman & Hoffman, 2003)
  53. 53. (Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007) Technology and human agency mutually reinforce one another rather than working at cross purposes.
  54. 54. What if our digital technologies were protean? Improve learning and teaching Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  55. 55. What if our digital technologies were protean? Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking When you claim to ‘grok’ some knowledge or technique, you are asserting that you have not merely learned it in a detached instrumental way but that it has become part of you, part of your identity. (Jargon File)
  56. 56. Teachers first (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 453) …they must first know how to use those technologies for their own purposes (and any benefits of doing so)
  57. 57. easy to subvert (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 460) …short-term professional development activities, designed to put teachers into classrooms with improved technological skills and understandings
  58. 58. Importance of (Lankshear & Bigum, 1999, p. 460) addressing the ongoing needs of teachers developing new kinds of alignments, and associations
  59. 59. (Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007) In ordinary life, Zaq is a bartender. He has no training in computer science but has learned to write simple scripts that he “tweaks” and “troubleshoots.” He gains a sense of the possibilities of computational technology in an effortless way that he describes as “fun.”
  60. 60. (Nardi & Kallinikos, 2007) Mods are a social resource. Zaq shares his knowledge of LazyRogue with Jacquii. Players discuss mods in chat and share their opinions…. Players help each other find, configure, and debug mods.
  61. 61. What if our digital technologies were protean? Improve learning and teaching Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  62. 62. What if our digital technologies were protean? Improve learning and teaching Necessary for teachers to grok computational thinking Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  63. 63. …there is surely no more reliable way to kill enthusiasm and interest in a subject than to make it a madatory part of the school curriculum. (Lockhart, 2009, p. 8)
  64. 64. School boards do not understand what math is, neither do educators, …neither do most of our math teachers. The problem is so enormous, I hardly know where to begin. (Lockhart, 2009, p. 8)
  65. 65. Fundamentally transforming the world of work and generating new ways of doing business on a global scale (DET, 2015, p. 11)
  66. 66. (Selwyn & Bulfin, 2016, p. 288) valuing of technology as used when & where permitted standardized and preconfigured conforms to institutional rather than individual needs directed activity
  67. 67. (Margolis et. al., 2010, p. 102) disconnected from students’ lives devoid of real-life relevance a chorus defining the subject as ‘boring’ didactic nature of classes dominance of book rather than computer based activities theoretical rather than practical (Rowan & Lynch, 2011, p.88)
  68. 68. What if our digital technologies were protean? Better prepare students, teachers & schools for the “digital world”
  69. 69. How can we do it?
  70. 70. (Grover & Pea, 2013) Low floor, high ceiling support “use-modify-create” scaffolding enable transfer support equity Creating computationally rich environments systemic and sustainable
  71. 71. David Jones @djplaner Elke Schneider @elketeaches http://bit.ly/dtProtean
  72. 72. Department of Education and Training. (2015). #codingcounts: A discussion paper on coding and robotics in Queensland schools. Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved from http://advancingeducation.qld.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/Coding-and-robotics-booklet.pdf Ertmer, P. a., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2013). Removing obstacles to the pedagogical changes required by Jonassen’s vision of authentic technology-enabled learning. Computers & Education, 64, 175–182. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.008 Grover, S., & Pea, R. (2013). Computational Thinking in K-12: A Review of the State of the Field. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 38–43. http://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X12463051 Jones, D., Albion, P., & Heffernan, A. (2016). Mapping the digital practices of teacher educators: Implications for teacher education in changing digital landscapes. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2016 (pp. 2878–2886). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
  73. 73. Kay, A. (1984). Computer Software. Scientific American, 251(3), 53–59. Kay, A., & Goldberg, A. (1977). Personal Dynamic Media. Computer, 10(3), 31–41. Koopman, P., & Hoffman, R. (2003). Work-arounds, make-work and kludges. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 18(6), 70–75. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1249172 Lankshear, C., & Bigum, C. (1999). Literacies and new technologies in school settings. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 7(3), 445–465. http://doi.org/10.1080/14681369900200068 Lockhart, P. (2009). A Mathematician’s Lament: How school cheats us out of our most fascinating and imagintive art forms. New York: Bellevue Literary Press. Retrieved from http://cla.sd57.bc.ca/~rgiroday/admin/pdf/LockhartsLament.pdf Margolis, J., Estrella, R., Goode, J., Jullison Holme, J., & Nao, K. (2010). Stuck in the shallow end: Education, race, and computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  74. 74. Nardi, B., & Kallinikos, J. (2007). Opening the Black Box of Digital Technologies: Mods in World of Warcraft. In 23rd EGOS Colloquium. Osborne, R. (2014). An ecological approach to educational technology : affordance as a design tool for aligning pedagogy and technology. University of Exeter. Retrieved from https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/handle/10871/16637 Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: children, computers, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books. Rowan, L., & Lynch, J. (2011). The continued underrepresentation of girls in post-compulsory information technology courses: a direct challenge to teacher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(2), 83–95.
  75. 75. Rushkoff, D. (2010). Program or be programmed: Ten commands for a digital age. New York: OR Books. Selwyn, N., & Bulfin, S. (2016). Exploring school regulation of students’ technology use – rules that are made to be broken? Educational Review, 68(3), 274–290. Wiley, D., Waters, S., Dawson, D., Lambert, B., Barclay, M., Wade, D., & Nelson, L. (2004). Overcoming the Limitations of Learning Objects. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(4), 507–521. Hippel, E. von. (1986). Lead users: A source of novel product concepts. Management Science, 32(7), 791–806. Zagami, J., Boden, M., Keane, T., Moreton, B., & Schulz, K. (2016). Female participation in school computing : reversing the trend. Retrieved from http://digitalcareers.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Female-Participation.pdf
  76. 76. Slide 1, 2, 3: "Unsure Of The Next Step" by Ariel Dovas available at http://flickr.com/photos/eviloars/4837529409 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 4, 26: "Live Straw Poll results" by Gage Skidmore available at http://flickr.com/photos/GageSkidmore/5487090921 under Attribution-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ Slide 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12: "Different perspective" by Michael Leland available at http://flickr.com/photos/mjlmadison/11485976495 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 13, 14, 15, 25, 40, 53: "Proteus" by skooksie available at http://flickr.com/photos/skooksie/16539525746 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  77. 77. Slide 25, 53, 79: "exploring" by leisergu available at http://flickr.com/photos/leisergu/528396386 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 22, 74: "Noob." by Garrett Dimon available at http://flickr.com/photos/GarrettDimon/1388168127 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 27, 28, 29: "History doesn't repeat itself, it rhymes" by flowcomm available at http://flickr.com/photos/flowcomm/4258398737 under Attribution License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Slide 38: "Full Window GVim" by Adam Bachman available at http://flickr.com/photos/adam.bachman/4285402096 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 40: "sameness" by megan ann available at http://flickr.com/photos/fasterpandakillkill/43796088 under Attribution License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
  78. 78. Slide 42: "Five-Way Portrait of Marcel Duchamp (1917)" by cea + available at http://flickr.com/photos/Cea./6795836748 under Attribution License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Slide 43, 44, 45, 46: "Theme graffiti" by duncan c available at http://flickr.com/photos/duncan/5602843300 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 51, 57: "bad to the bone" by Robbie Grubbs available at http://flickr.com/photos/Sparrow'slens/4078959737 under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/ Slide 55, 59, 80: "Limitation" by Kevin Spencer available at http://flickr.com/photos/kevinspencer/7161995567 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 56, 57, 63, 64, 71, 72, 78: "explaining speculation vs hypothesis" by Giulia Forsythe available at http://flickr.com/photos/giulia.forsythe/15813038999 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  79. 79. Slide 58: "Window Kludge" by chrstphre ㋛ campbell available at http://flickr.com/photos/chrstphre/4838013011 under Attribution License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/ Slide 62, 69, 70: "heaven" by JimmyMac210 - just returned home from hospital available at http://flickr.com/photos/JimmyMac210-justreturnedhomefromhospital/14346886270 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 66, 67, 68: "Elementary School Teachers" by victoriabernal available at http://flickr.com/photos/victoriabernal/6403776731 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 76, 77: "another banksy on the wall" by Marc Brubaker available at http://flickr.com/photos/hometownzero/33334730 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  80. 80. Slide 81: "Wicked problems 2" by Antonio Vantaggiato available at http://flickr.com/photos/avunque/8409044888 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 82: "Possibilities" by Susan available at http://flickr.com/photos/SusanAstray/2176917760 under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Slide 83: "Questions?" by Marcus Ramberg available at http://flickr.com/photos/MarcusRamberg/185508448 under Attribution-NonCommercial License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ Slide 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92: "Books" by Kenny Louie available at http://flickr.com/photos/kennymatic/8642451160 under Attribution License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

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