Writing an annotated bibliography


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Library Bibliographic Instruction PowerPoint

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Writing an annotated bibliography

  1. 1. David H. Thibodeau
  2. 2.  An organized list of citations for sources you have used in your research that includes an accompanying description and evaluation of each resource called the annotation.
  3. 3.  Each entry must have two parts:  1. the citation, organized and written in a specified format. The style used may be APA, MLA, Chicago, or any of a number of others.  2. the annotation, an accompanying paragraph that describes each source. Generally 100- 150 words long with 4 – 6 sentences.
  4. 4.  An annotation should evaluate the source and inform the readers of the quality of the source you have cited.  What was the article about?  Was the article useful?  What was the author’s conclusion?  Who was the intended audience?  What were your reactions?
  5. 5.  An evaluation of the article must be included, if you only describe the content you are abstracting the article. Aspects of the content should be included that are not evident in the title and abstract so that the relevance of the article can be established by the reader.
  6. 6.  Introduction to economic institutions, history and competing paradigms and ideologies in economics. Conservative, liberal and radical perspectives; orthodox and heterodox economic theories. Topics include: the role of cultural, legal, economic and political institutions; class, gender and race; wealth and poverty; and the environment.
  7. 7.  Often economists appear to contradict one another. Economists, rather than being objective, are often asked to present different sides of an issue rather than provide the entire truth. This is one of reasons why economists in the media may seem to contradict each other.
  8. 8.  Articles from reviewed academic journals. Books from academic presses. Reports from intergovernmental organizations. Primary records from government institutions.
  9. 9.  Articles from magazines or non-reviewed periodicals. Wikipedia or generally any other online sources. Textbooks. Encyclopedias, dictionaries, or other tertiary- source reference materials.
  10. 10.  What is the review process? Who was the publisher ? Who is the intended audience? What is the format and appearance? What is the content? Who are the authors?Generally, ask yourself if the source is of a higher standard and is the author an expert.
  11. 11.  Use publications from professional organizations. Use scholarly databases. Specify "peer-reviewed journals“ or “scholarly sources” in other databases. Evaluate print journals and journals in other databases using the criteria above
  12. 12.  Following are sample annotations from annotated bibliographies. Annotations in your bibliography should reflect your research topic and your professor’s guidelines. Depending upon the purpose of the bibliography in addition to summarizing and evaluating a source, some may reflect upon the source’s use in your research. Annotations in bibliographies may address all three of these steps. Consider your instructor’s directions when deciding how much information to annotate.
  13. 13. Pfeffer, Jeffrey (2007). A modest proposal: how we might change the process and product of managerial research. Academy of Management Review, 50(6), 1334-1345. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. Pfeffer identifies a preoccupation with theory and an interest in novelty as a significant problem plaguing formal research in business schools. Describing this phenomenon as a quest for ‘what’s new’ rather than ‘what’s true’. Pfeffer argues that competition in business schools has produced uniformity and stifled innovation. Pfeffer notes that rather than build upon the evidence-based knowledge that has furthered other disciplines, the pressure to publish in ranked journals has forced researchers to disdain work that informs professionals. Researchers prefer to concentrate on idiosyncrasies of previously published theoretical work that has little effect on real underlying processes in the business world noting that superficial aspects are imitated that have little effect on underlying processes. Additionally while research in academia focuses on what works, it neglects what doesn’t work, when knowing what doesn’t work can be as important as knowing what does.
  14. 14.  Familiarize yourself with the style you are required to use before beginning your research, (ALA, MLA, APA, etc…) Write your citations as you complete your research, include evaluation notes. Title your bibliography as “Annotated” Confirm that you have six scholarly sources. Use source bibliographies to identify additional sources.