Snap Happy: Putting People and Heritage in the Picture Using Augmented Reality. A case study from Stratford-upon-Avon, England, in the commercial application of augmented reality in an outdoor museum app called Eye Shakespeare.
20. Business Model
Partners Activities Value Proposition Customer Customer
• Hewlett Packard • 3D model • Unique Photo Relationships Segments
• Danwood • Shakespeare Opportunity • Social media • iPhone / iPad
• Email list users
• Coventry Univ font
through • non-visitors
• TIC • Training / • Unique souvenir transaction
• RSC demos product • 6 language
Resources TECHNOLOGY + Channels • Range of
• Printers HERITAGE • iOS5 interests in /
• Staff time • HP e-print affinities to
• social media Shakespeare
Cost Structure Revenue Streams
• Freemium: free app, premium product • Print on demand
• trial costs for souvenir • Email option
• Advertising on ‘lite’ shareable photo • Lite version for sharing (marketing)
QUANDARY: how to make money from digital?Hope to show that we’re developing a way to create value through our collections using ARCreated a unique value proposition which starts with the visitor + heritage and is made possible using digital technologies, hopefully leads to ROI for the Shakespeare Birthplace TrustSpecial thanks to the Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, for funding trip to the conferenceFirstly – AR and museums
[Now, first of all what do I mean by Augmented Reality? AR is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data (thank you wikipedia)In other words, AR enhances our perception of the real world by adding extra data]Various manifestations of AR which began in manufacturing, cinematography and gaming in 1960sMorton Heilig patented his Sensorama machine, an immersive multi-sensory device that looked like a giant arcade game, except it emitted aromas, environmental elements such as wind and it also vibrated and played stereo sounds. And a business model – it was coin operated – augmented virtualityAR only popularised in last 10 years: what has boosted application of these technologies recently is the development of real estate – widespread ownership of handheld devices - smartphones incorporating solid state compasses, accelerometers and GPS enable us to visualise virtual reality on the street using the cameraWhat about use in museums?Museums are fertile territory for the application of AR because we have REALITY in abundance – we have lots of stuff - collections, built heritage, and even people who are frequently reframed by the museum as it presents what it has to the public
Arguably, there are two ways in which museums currently augment realitySeparation between artefact and extra data: example of adding to reality with extra information eg. using QRpedia, linking out to the web to supply additional interpretive information, but the two are quite separate – AR in its simplest formAdvantages:Layering content (other languages to multimedia)Personalised (feedback)Empowering (own devices)Disadvantages:Ownership of devicesIndoor reception (3G signal, wifi)Anti social – diminishes realityThe second way that museums are augmenting reality is by integrating the artefact with extra data
Lots of exciting work going on in museums with more creative and integrated uses of AR such as this prototype of a hot air balloon tour through a museum, created by the German company Metaioan example of marrying up computer generated content with the real thing as opposed to the separation between device and artefact seen in the last slideLooking beyond museums for the most innovative applications of AR technology and ones with commercial possibilities...
One of the most powerful things that can be done with augmented reality is to see ourselves in the pictureThis is an example of a Dutch Government project to shock people out of doing nothing if emergency services staff are being assaultedBillboard which divides screen into two: passers-by are caught on camera and become part of the picture (top) while a prerecorded fight scene is kept running in the bottom of the screenThe idea is that people will be placed in that scenario in a safe environment and see – holding a mirror up to passers-by
Fast forward to the safe streets of Stratford – this is the scene outside Shakespeare’s birthplace where top activity of tourists is a very different type of by-standingAlthough not quite so shocking, the number 1 activity of 3.4m tourists coming to Stratford-upon-Avon every year is to take a picture of themselves outside the birthplace of Shakespeare – quite literally snap happy90% of visitors to the town don’t pay to enter the BirthplaceIt’s their way of enshrining the event which for some is a pilgrimage. They’re creating a memento, a souvenir of their visit.What we are in the process of doing is using AR to take this one step further – commercialising the activity, offering a unique view of Stratford that they won’t want to leave withoutTo do that we’ve created an app
Eye ShakespeareHead of blind Shakespeare: the suggestion is that with the app you can see his hometown, Stratford-upon-Avon, in a new way
We’re not alone in this venturePartnership projectCollaboration with an academic partner (CovUni) and two commercial sector partners – HP and Danwood – to create an immersive heritage modelFunded by the Technology Strategy Board, 24 month project which began in July 2011Crucial thing: 4 partners have a common goal – to create an immersive heritage model and push the boundaries of applied technology – but differences provide an engine for innovation – skills and self interest of each of the partners vital in defining something that we wouldn’t have conceived of doing on our ownCoventry University: interested in pushing the boundaries of technologyShakespeare Birthplace Trust: interested in improving access to content and in sustainabilityHewlett Packard / Danwood: interested in printing technologiesProject part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, UK Govt agency which supports new technology initiatives
Very quickly, some of the main features of the appOutdoor, street tour of 13 sites in Stratford (selective): uses GPS and period maps of town Town’s history is layered – to represent that sedimentary story, visitors able to choose a tour guide from different periods (WS, DG, MC, snail) at each of the sitesGeolocated or re-contextualised content from the Trust’s amazing collections – way of augmenting experience of visiting built heritage
Different periods – slice through Trust’s collections from 500 yearsHair of the head of Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway: used in the app at Anne Hathaway’s Cottage / Shakespeare as the guideCaptions written in the first person – challenge treading a fine line between conjecture and fact!
Scurrilous little handkerchief which satirises great Shakespeare festival organised by Garrick in 1769 – he helped put Stratford on the mapAppears in app at RSC building, near site of Jubilee celebrations Storm clouds - washed out the festivities – Stratford under Avon – put town on map – geolocating worldwide interest in Shakespeare
This watercolour of a scene from Hamlet was designed for the backdrop of scene from the play during first seasonCoincides with lifetime of third of guides, Marie CorelliForgive my indulgence – wanted to demonstrate taking collections on location, onto street (like gallery example of AR showed earlier) – an example of the first and simplest way that museums are using AR – that kind of separation I spoke about earlierWhat about integrating computer generated content and heritage? Perhaps greatest draw in terms of assets – Shakespeare Houses – these provide perfect backdrop for the second type of way that museums are using AR
This is Nash’s House (lhs), home of William Shakespeare’s gradndaughter, and site of Shakespeare’s last home, New Place (rhs) – building twice demolished – therefore a prime site for ARHow did we reconstruct New Place? Started with unique value propositions of the Trust: collections and people
One of the only visualisations we have of the home of WS was sketched many years after its demolition – George Vertue – now in the British Library. This has been the basis for a 3D image of New Place which visitors will be able to walk around
The experts: Dr Tara Hamling (University of Birmingham) and AthanasiosVourvopoulos (Coventry University)Point: face to face meeting required on site (image) to supplement email exchange and work out differences between academic disciplines
What does it look like?People in the picture is being achieved by creating holes in the virtual image – should be rolled out in version 2
Close-up view of building – actually go inside too – examine New Place in detailChallenges: The biggest challenge is establishing an accurate GPS fix in a narrow street. If the GPS fix changes the item being overlaid is seen to 'jump' out of place. Even without jumping issues different devices have different margins of error which are shown as shifts to the building position (typically +- 1m)The placement errors are being handled through the use of light and shade around the edges of the building so that it is less noticable. The jumping is being resolved through an averaging algorithm.
Shows the model in the process of being ‘anchored’ into positionThe disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye – need to work on that – new generations of phones hopefully that AR will be able to snap happier The biggest challenges are the accurate positioning given the less than optimum GPS reception in Stratford and the fact that the AR image sits OVER the camera view. So you could put Shakespeare in front of the visitor but not behind them.What will visitors be able to do with image? E-print number – go to three sites in town to print off
The product – personalised with font created from manuscript of play, Sir Thomas More – hand of William ShakespeareThe place – local printing option – HP e-print barcodeWhich business model are we using?
Apologies for how dull this slide looks but this business model canvas has allowed us to rationalise our business model for AR within the appThe canvas is taken from Business Model Generation written by Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur published in 2009.‘A heritage institution looking for a revenue model is best advised to start with its potential customers, rather than its collection’. Business Model Innovation: Cultural Heritage, The Den Foundation / Knowledgeland, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 2010, p.85Three sections beginning on rhs with customer, what our value proposition is (centre) and how we’re going to deliver that (left). The bottom line information is given in the two sections at the bottom. Hope to innovate within each box – sure the public will help us do that as we trial the product.
Other applications:Seeing Shakespeare at the Birthplace – top site for many peopleGeotagging from the tower at the RSCX-raying Hall’s CroftSeeing the ghost of Marie Corelli at Mason Croft, home of The Shakespeare Institute
App available from 30th May – beta versionAR will be in the second version – expect to be trialling the commercial aspect in summer 2012