Assessment of Buy vs Borrow Using the GIST for ILLiad Interface


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SUNY Geneseo has been using GIST for ILLiad since its inception in 2010 and now has three years of ILL and Circulation data that demonstrate the benefits of a Buy vs. Borrow stratagem. This session will assess the benefits of patron driven acquisitions and ILL based collection development in the face of declining budgets and increased information demands by library patrons. Presentation by Mark Sullivan & Tim Bowersox

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  • At Geneseo, we have been exclusively using GIST for managing all of our acquisitions since October 2010.This followed a two-month testing period with librarians then faculty so we could work out the kinks.Once we were comfortable, we released it to students with no advertisement. In other words, we were hoping the discerning student requesters would stumble upon it first. And they did!
  • Prior to the introduction of GIST, SUNY Geneseo primarily relied upon librarians and faculty representatives to select titles for purchase.Students and other staff were completely shut out of the picture.Once we released GIST to the entire campus, we really weren’t sure what to expect.Would our 5,445 FTE students notice? What would they request?Students really did notice: they out-requested teaching faculty by 6%.That’s more or less a 1-to-1 ratio of faculty to student requests, giving them a pretty equal stake in collection development.
  • Geneseo has traditionally been a 2:1 net borrower. Annually, it was not uncommon for us to receive upwards of 30,000 requests.Before GIST, we would have had to borrow each and every one of those requested titles.But now, we have consistently been purchasing roughly 9% of all requested titles. This comes despite:All current year titles being routed automatically to acquisitions.Any requested loan can be recommended or considered for purchase.There are no limitations on item format or publisher.This 9% really came about organically, such that we can confidently say GIST did not open the flood gates for acquisitions.
  • Looking more closely at our purchase requests, you can see that we purchased 91% of requested titles.In total, these titles cost over $125,000, ending at roughly $20.68 per title.Do note that data was missing or inconsistent during 2010-2011.This was prior to the introduction of the GIST database tables, so price data was stored in the Call Number field (which was often overwritten)In that case, we applied the $20.68 average per title cost from 2012-13 to estimate the total amount spent.Compared to the ARL average borrowing cost of $17.50 per title, GIST shows that the cost of business for PDA is on par with that of ILL…With the obvious benefit of expanding your collection!
  • Another benefit of GIST is that it gathers holdings data for two sets of customizable groups.For us, these are the IDS Project and all OCLC suppliers in NY State.Going back in time, we wanted to see the average number of holdings for purchased titles at the time the request was placed.What we found was that 49% of purchased titles had fewer than 2 consortial or state holdings.Only 19% had 3 or more holdings.The remainder did not have any data, meaning that patrons did not use OpenURL or the built-in lookup functionality on the GIST webpages.What this does indicate is that we typically did not purchase items that could be easily borrowed via the IDS Project.As a result, what we did purchase added to our consortial and state collection diversity.This is a great way for GIST to support coordinated collection development efforts.
  • In terms of subject matter, we ended up acquiring titles across a broad spectrum.However, the majority of our purchases were in:Language, Linguistics, and LiteratureHistory & Auxiliary SciencesPerforming ArtsMusicEducationBusiness & Economics, andSociologyThis is really exciting data for us because it illustrates the type of collection building profile created by our users.
  • Since this is an ILL conference, I couldn’t help mentioning turnaround time.Turnaround time is hugely important for us – right now, Geneseo is turning an overall average loan turnaround of 7 calendar days.Our hope was to keep our purchases on par so we primarily use Amazon Prime for most of our purchases.This chart illustrates the comparison in turnaround time between ILL and acquisitions, with the shaded areas indicating the academic semesters.Though it tends to fluctuate more than ILL, acquisitions purchases remained close to a 7-10 day turnaround time during semesters.The huge leaps tend to correspond with holiday periods and our end of year “use it or lose it” purchasing binges.It’s worth noting that this turnaround time spans from the moment a request was submitted to the moment it was put on the hold shelf for pickup.That includes cataloging and physical processing, such as spine labels, jacket covers, etc.Overall, by using GIST to manage the acquisitions workflow from start to finish, it has allowed us to provide PDA titles to patrons in generally the amount of time as an ILL book.
  • Now for the juicy data: how often did these PDA titles circulate?After their initial loans, they circulated a total of 5,864 times.The overwhelming majority of these loans were by students, showing the real value these purchases had for our core stakeholders.Also worth noting, these purchased titles were loaned through ILL 326 times. This is important – not just because we’re at an ILL conference – but because it shows that collection diversity really does pay off.
  • Drilling down a little deeper into the data, we thought it would be fun to see which titles circulated the most.Then we thought it would be even more fun to see what the cost per use of those titles were!So here we have our top 25 titles by circulation. And in an effort to build suspense, we’ll start at the bottom…There is a really good mix of textbooks, popular fiction (gotta have the Hunger Games), and humanities titles
  • That mix continues as we move up the list. Notice that, despite the higher purchase price of these titles, that they ultimately pay off in a big way.Many of these titles are required textbooks that end up in our Textbook on Reserve collection….
  • And now, here we are at the top!The grand prize winner is a Spanish textbook! 263 loans with an average cost per use of only $0.33. That is a huge return on investment for a title that likely never would have been purchased if not for GIST.
  • Assessment of Buy vs Borrow Using the GIST for ILLiad Interface

    1. 1. Assessment of Buy vs. Borrow using GIST for ILLiad Tim Bowersox Access Services Librarian, SUNY Geneseo Mark Sullivan Executive Director, IDS Project
    2. 2. GIST PURCHASE AND ACQUISITIONS Getting started with GIST
    3. 3. • Displays book reviews to users. • Collects purchase price data for staff. Google Books, Hathi Trust, & Internet Archive • Displays available full text links to users. • Indicates free full text to staff. Patron feedback • Recommend an item for purchase. • Item-specific delivery preference. • Rate item’s value Holdings • Local holdings indicator. • Catalog link for patrons. • Group holdings data. Step 1. Patrons request an item using the enhanced GIST request form.
    4. 4. You decide what to buy. For example: • Patron recommends it • Published in the last year • Less than 3 regional libraries own a copy • Patron has a certain status/department Step 2. Your routing rules place the request in Acquisitions, Doc Del, or Borrowing.
    5. 5. Step 3. Purchase the item within the ILLiad request using the Purchasing Addon. GIST comes equipped with 20 vendors. • Automatically logs you into your account. • Instantly searches for the requested item. • Keep track of vendor contact info.
    6. 6. Step 4. Encumber the funds & update the order status in the Acquisitions Addon.
    7. 7. Step 5. Notify the patron the item has arrived using an Email Routing.
    8. 8. View & edit funds, vendor info, & your conspectus in the Database Addon.
    9. 9. Transactions UsersGISTWeb GISTFundLink GISTFunds GISTHistory GISTInvoice GISTVendor GISTConspectus GIST adds new tables to the ILLiad database.
    10. 10. Impact of GIST at SUNY Geneseo An analysis of requests placed from 10/1/10 – 8/27/13
    11. 11. Purchase requests by patron status Library staff 2,789 42% Students 2,096 31% Faculty 1,670 25% Staff 100 2% Other 12 0%
    12. 12. Borrowing volume vs. acquisitions volume Time Period Borrowing Loans Acquisitions Total % Acquisitions 2010 (Oct – Dec) 7,965 519 8,484 6% 2011 27,230 2,853 30,083 10% 2012 22,493 2,193 24,686 9% 2013 (Jan – Aug) 11,452 1,102 12,554 9% Total 69,140 6,667 75,807 9%
    13. 13. Acquisitions requests purchased vs. not purchased Time Period Purchase Recommendations Titles Purchased % Purchased Amount spent 2010 (Oct – Dec) 519 486 94% $10,048.64* 2011 2,853 2,612 92% $54,006.25* 2012 2,193 1,982 90% $31,854.45 2013 (Jan – Aug) 1,102 987 90% $29,533.21 Total 6,667 6,067 91% $125,442.55 * Estimated (based upon a cost of $20.68 per item from 2012-2013 data).
    14. 14. Regional holdings of purchased titles (at time of purchase) No data, 33% 0 holdings, 39% 1-2 holdings, 10% 3-5 holdings, 6% 6-10 holdings, 5% 10+ holdings, 8%
    15. 15. Subject breakdown of purchased titles 22 44 79 85 232 9 44 235 77 51 474 1112 40 69 155 94 284 382 112 25 52 78 83 212 54 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Agriculture Anthropology Art & Architecture Biological Sciences Business & Economics Chemistry Computer Science Education Engineering & Technology Geography & Earth Sciences History & Auxiliary Sciences Language, Linguistics & Literature Law Library Science, Generalities & Reference Mathematics Medicine Music Performing Arts Philosophy & Religion Physical Education & Recreation Physical Sciences Political Science Psychology Sociology Unknown
    16. 16. Turnaround time of purchased titles vs. ILL loan turnaround time 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 Oct-10 Nov-10 Dec-10 Jan-11 Feb-11 Mar-11 Apr-11 May-11 Jun-11 Jul-11 Aug-11 Sep-11 Oct-11 Nov-11 Dec-11 Jan-12 Feb-12 Mar-12 Apr-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Aug-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Nov-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 TurnaroundTime(Days) Borrowing Loans Acquisitions (Academic semesters highlighted)
    17. 17. Subsequent circulation of titles, by patron status Patron Status Circulation % of Total Student 4,373 75% Faculty 890 15% ILL -- Borrowing Libraries 326 6% Graduate Student 142 2% Community 84 1% Staff 41 1% SUNY Geneseo Alumni 6 0% Circ special users 2 0% Total 5,864 100%
    18. 18. Top 25 titles purchased (by circulation) Title Loans Cost CPU 15 Student study guide for Biology [by] Campbell, Reece / Martha R. Taylor. 50 $35.98 $0.71 16Interpersonal communication / Sarah Trenholm, Arthur Jensen. 47 $80.98 $1.72 17 Perspectives on personality / Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier. 46 $107.13 $2.32 18 Moving history / dancing cultures : a dance history reader / edited by Ann Dils & Ann Cooper Albrigh 46 $22.95 $0.49 19Principles of marketing / Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong. 45 $196.94 $4.37 20The Hunger Games / by Suzanne Collins. 41 $13.28 $0.32 21 The tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark / William Shakespeare ; with new and updated critical essay 39 $8.99 $0.23 22Two treatises of government / edited by Mark Goldie. 39 $42.08 $1.07 23Numerical analysis / Richard L. Burden, J. Douglas Faires. 36 $152.48 $4.23 24International economics / Dominick Salvatore. 34 $145.45 $4.27 25 Showings / Julian of Norwich ; translated from the critical text, with an introd., by Edmund Colledg 34 $16.96 $0.49
    19. 19. Top 25 titles purchased (by circulation) Title Loans Cost CPU 6 Managerial accounting / Ray H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen, Peter C. Brewer. 100 $107.00 $1.07 7 Student study guide/solutions manual to accompany Genetics : analysis & principles, third edition / 96 $99.00 $1.03 8 Essentials of abnormal psychology / V. Mark Durand, David H. Barlow. 84 $55.00 $0.65 9 Biochemistry / Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer ; with Gregory J. Gatto, Jr. 72 $89.12 $1.23 10Essentials of geology / Stephen Marshak. 69 $70.89 $1.02 11 Principles of neuropsychology / Eric A. Zillmer, Mary V. Spiers ; William C. Culbertson. 69 $94.62 $1.37 12The Aeneid / Virgil ; translated by Robert Fitzgerald. 67 $10.29 $0.15 13 Methods toward a science of behavior and experience / William J. Ray. 54 $232.51 $4.30 14 Statistics for the behavioral sciences / James Jaccard and Michael Becker. 53 $184.86 $3.48
    20. 20. Top 25 titles purchased (by circulation) Title Loans Cost CPU 1 Basic Spanish / Ana C. Jarvis, Raquel Lebredo, Francisco Mena- Ayllon. 263 $88.48 $0.33 2 Essentials of corporate finance / Stephen A. Ross, Randolph W. Westerfield, Bradford D. Jordan. 172 $28.00 $0.16 3 Concepts in federal taxation 2013 / Kevin E. Murphy, Mark Higgins. 137 $306.48 $2.23 4Essentials of Psychology / Douglas A. Bernstein. 118 $155.63 $1.31 5Adolescence / John W. Santrock. 106 $58.85 $0.55
    21. 21. Summary • Faculty & students have equal stake in collection development • Purchase requests are 9% of all patron requests • Spent $20.68/item (vs. $17.50 ARL unit cost to ILL) • Majority of titles increased regional collection diversity • Purchased in wide range of subject areas • Turnaround time very comparable to ILL • 75% of subsequent loans were by students • Cost-per-use shows strong return on investment
    23. 23. • GIST for ILLiad – Google Books widget (alternative to the Amazon Widget) – System level addon to replace routing rules – Statistics module – Articles • CCC, Reprints Desk, OA, etc. • Gift and Deselection Manager Online (Fall 2014) – Rewrite of code to convert to web based system – Consortial conspectus • Weeding • Gifts • Textbooks – Last copy
    24. 24. Getting It System Toolkit The GIST Project & Community Coming Soon to the IDS Project Press!
    25. 25. QUESTIONS?
    26. 26. Thank you! GIST was made possible by our partners Rochester Regional Library Council