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The (In)adequacy of
            Man
 as an English Equivalent
of the Biblical Hebrew Noun
            vyIa
       David E. S. Stein
Frequency



                         vyIa



11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   2
Frequency



                         vyIa
            2,183 times


11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   3
Frequency



                                vyIa
                   2,183 times

           Source: TLOT ( Jenni-Westermann)

11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   4
Semantics and Pragmatics



                          vyIa
           How does this noun
                  function
           in the Hebrew Bible?

11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   5
Recent Articles



                          vyIa
“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,”
   Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008).




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   6
Recent Articles



                          vyIa
“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,”
   Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008).
“The Grammar of Social Gender in
 Biblical Hebrew,” Hebrew Studies XLIX
 (2008): 7–26.
11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   7
Today’s Question




           What are the implications for
                  TRANSLATION
                . . . into English . . .



11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   8
Today’s Question




           What are the implications for
                 TRANSLATION
                    into English
                   with regard to
                 semantic content?

11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   9
Summary of Findings about the Noun                        vyIa




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish          10
Summary of Findings about the Noun                        vyIa

1.

2.

3.




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish          11
Summary of Findings about the Noun                             vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2.

3.




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish          12
As a Term of Affiliation




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   13
As a Term of Affiliation




                          vyIa


11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   14
As a Term of Affiliation

               Dual Reference



                          vyIa


11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   15
As a Term of Affiliation

                 Dual Reference



                          vyIa
   PARTICIPANT

                        The Situation in Question




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   16
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa




11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   17
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa
                 is an vyIa




11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   18
As a Term of Affiliation

                Dual Reference



           Someone who is an vyIa
                 is an vyIa

                              of

11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   19
As a Term of Affiliation

                   Dual Reference



             Someone who is an vyIa
                   is an vyIa

                                 of
           somebody or something else.

11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   20
As a Term of Affiliation

                   Dual Reference



             Someone who is an vyIa
                   is an vyIa
                      of
                      of
           somebody or something else.
           somebody or something else.

11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   21
Summary of Findings about the Noun                              vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2. Its primary meaning functions independently
   of its gender content.




11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish          22
Meaning

           Semantic Components

                           vyIa




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   23
Meaning = Affiliation

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   24
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         25
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         26
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE



       AN AFFILIATE                                            FEMALE

                                hDÚvIa
11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish            27
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

               Semantic Components

                                vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         28
Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness

            Semantic Components

                        vyIa vyIa
  AN AFFILIATE                                            NOT FEMALE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish           29
Summary of Findings about the Noun                              vyIa

1. It is primarily a term of affiliation.

2. Its primary meaning functions independently
   of its gender content.

3. When it refers to a class (or genus), its gender
   meaning is muted; it means only that the class
   (or genus) is not solely female.


11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish          30
Determination and Referential Function



                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   31
Determination and Referential Function

                        Definite

                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   32
Determination and Referential Function

                           Definite

                               vyIa




           Class, Particular, or Unique


11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   33
Determination and Referential Function

                           Definite

                               vyIa




           Class, Particular, or Unique


11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   34
Meaning = Affiliation



                                 vyIa
       AN AFFILIATE




             Class, Particular, or Unique


11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   35
Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness



                                 vyIa
                                                            solely
       AN AFFILIATE                                      NOT FEMALE




             Class, Particular, or Unique


11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         36
Determination and Referential Function



                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   37
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   38
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




            Generic or Specific


11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   39
Determination and Referential Function

                     Indefinite

                            vyIa




            Generic or Specific


11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   40
Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness

                         Indefinite

                                vyIa
                                                           solely
       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




                Generic or Specific


11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         41
Context May Constrain the Social Gender




       AN AFFILIATE                                     NOT FEMALE




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         42
Focus of Analysis




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   43
Focus of Analysis




                              ≠




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   44
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                     Exodus 5:9




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   45
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   46
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   47
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

           “Let heavier work be laid upon
                           the MyIvÎnSa.”


11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   48
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   49
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   50
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   51
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


                   laborers,
                  1 not female


11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   52
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   53
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


                            Definite



11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   54
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t


                            Definite

              Class, Particular, or Unique

11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   55
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                            Exodus 5:9



            MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t
           NOT FEMALE


                             Definite

               Class, Particular, or Unique

11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   56
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                             Exodus 5:9



            MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t
            solely
           NOT FEMALE


                              Definite

               Class, Particular, or Unique

11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   57
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

                              solely
                          NOT FEMALE




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   58
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   59
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                           Exodus 5:9



           MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t

                   laborers,
                  1 not female


11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   60
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1

                         Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”


                   —NJPS (1962)
           Similarly RSV, NASB, NIV, NKJV,
            NET, HCSB, ESV, ISV (alternate)

11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   61
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                     Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   62
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                     Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   63
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   64
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”

                                mostly male
                                work force



11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   65
Is this rendering accurate?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”

                                mostly male
                                work force



11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   66
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           67
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           68
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           69
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           70
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           71
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                           72
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                      Exodus 11:3




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   73
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   74
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   75
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                             Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

             Moreover, the vyIa Moses was
             very great in the land of Egypt.


  11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   76
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   77
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   78
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3
      MˆyDrVxIm yEnyEoV;b MDoDh NEj_tRa hDwhy NE;tˆ¥yÅw
MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   79
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   80
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   81
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   82
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   83
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   84
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g


                 special envoy

  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   85
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   86
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                         Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g


                         Definite



  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   87
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g


                           Definite

             Class, Particular, or Unique

  11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   88
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g
                                                         NOT FEMALE


                           Definite

             Class, Particular, or Unique

  11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         89
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                            Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

               n-female
             no
                    special envoy

  11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   90
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                           Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g
                                  or
MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hD IvIaDh MA…g

   11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   91
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                          Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g
                                 or
MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hDvIaDh MA…g

  11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   92
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                            Exodus 11:3



MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g

               n-female
             no
                    special envoy

  11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   93
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2

                             Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.

                  —NET Bible (1996)
           Similarly RSV, NASB, NKJV, HCSB, ISV



11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   94
What is this rendering’s gender sense?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   95
Should this rendering convey gender?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   96
Asymmetry in Gender Markers




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   97
Asymmetry in Gender Markers




                             ≠




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   98
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw
     he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)


                MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw
each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter)

  11/20/08              (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   99
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw
    he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)


                MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw
each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter)

  11/20/08              (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   100
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                        Exodus 2:11; 18:7


             yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw
                                  man                                 man
     he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)


                MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw
         man
each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter)

  11/20/08              (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         101
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                 Exodus 2:11; 18:7




                           man                                 man
     he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)




         man
each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter)

  11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         102
Asymmetry in Gender Markers

                 Exodus 2:11; 18:7




    he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV)




each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter)

  11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   103
Should this rendering convey gender?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   104
Should this rend                                           gender?
                                     :3
                            Exodus 11


           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish       105
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   106
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                            Exodus 11:3



           Moreover, the man Moses was
           very great in the land of Egypt.


                  male human being


11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   107
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      108
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      109
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                   Exodus 21:35




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   110
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   111
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   112
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

                   “If the ox of vyIa
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”


11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   113
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   114
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   115
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   116
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   117
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35



     …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   118
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   119
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw


             party to a legal proceeding,
                  regardless of gender

11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   120
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   121
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

                       Indefinite




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   122
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

                       Indefinite

                Generic or Specific


11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   123
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
                                                        NOT FEMALE

                       Indefinite

                Generic or Specific


11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         124
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
                                                           solely
                                                        NOT FEMALE

                       Indefinite

                Generic or Specific


11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish         125
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   126
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   127
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35


                      a wa
                  hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
      …whEoér rwøv_tR




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   128
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                      Exodus 21:35


                      a wa
                  hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw
      …whEoér rwøv_tR




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   129
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   130
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   131
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   132
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Job 24:3



   …whE rwøv_tRa hDnDmVlAa rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   133
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw




11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   134
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                       Exodus 21:35



      …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw

             party to a legal proceeding,
                  regardless of gender


11/20/08         (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   135
Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3

                         Exodus 21:35




                “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”
                  —NET Bible (1996)
                  Similarly RSV, NKJV, ESV



11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   136
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                         Exodus 21:35




                “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   137
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”




11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   138
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”

                                    male



11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   139
Does this rendering convey a lack of gender?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”




11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   140
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”




11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   141
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                          Exodus 21:35




                 “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”

                     male human being



11/20/08            (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   142
Does this rendering convey affiliation?

                           Exodus 21:35




                  “If the ox of one man
           injures the ox of his neighbor . . .”

                              male party



11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   143
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      144
Is this rendering accurate?


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      145
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      146
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      147
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      148
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      149
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      150
The Accuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      151
The Inaccuracy of “Man”


     Exodus    Contextual sense        Contextual sense             Affiliation   Gender
     Passage   ofvyI a                 of “man”                     Accuracy      Accur a c y


#1     5:9     Laborers                Work force                   Equivalent

                1 not female           Mostly male                                Overstat e d


#2    11:3     Special envo y          Human bein g                 Droppe d

               Not germane             Emphatic male                              Overstat e d


#3    21:3 5   Party                   Party                        Equivalent

               Either gende r          Male                                       Misstate d




11/20/08                  (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish                      152
Accurate Rendering as “Man”




11/20/08    (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   153
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering




           As gender neutral

           As opposed to woman, or to deity




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   154
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                          Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl

 . . . not a dog shall snarl . . . at vyIa or beast.



 11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   155
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                         Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl




  11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   156
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1

                         Exodus 11:7



hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl

   not a dog shall snarl . . . at man or beast.



 11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   157
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                  Exodus 21:28




11/20/08     (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   158
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw




 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   159
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw




 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   160
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

when an ox gores an vyIa or woman to death



 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   161
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw




 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   162
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw




 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   163
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw




 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   164
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                     Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw


            . . . rwøÚvAh lAoAb…w . . .

 11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   165
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                      Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

            when an ox gores a party,
             male or female, to death


 11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   166
Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2

                    Exodus 21:28



tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw

when an ox gores a man or woman to death



 11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   167
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering
                           Frequency



           As gender neutral

           As opposed to woman, or to deity




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   168
Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering
                           Frequency



           As gender neutral

           As opposed to woman, or to deity




11/20/08        (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   169
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




11/20/08       (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   170
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




           vyIa              someone • anyone • each •
                             one • party • participant •
                             member • fellow • expert •
                             husband • householder •
                             agent • envoy • delegate •
                             candidate • commissioner •
                             deputy • leader • laborer •
                             heir • troop • representative
11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   171
Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter?




           vyIa              someone • anyone • each
                             one • man • man • man
                                                                 •
                                                                 •
                             man • man • husband                 •
                             man • man • man • man               •
                             man • man • man • man               •
                             man • man • man • man               •
                             man • man • man • man               •
                             man • man • man • man
11/20/08          (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   172
The Difference That Affiliation Makes




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   173
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations




11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   174
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108




11/20/08               (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   175
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108

                                          Number of English
                  Translation             Equivalents Used

                  NRSV (1989)                           10
                  TNIV (2005)                              7
                  CJPS (2006)                           25



11/20/08               (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   176
The Difference That Affiliation Makes

    Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations


           Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108

                                          Number of English
                  Translation             Equivalents Used

                  NRSV (1989)                           10
                  TNIV (2005)                              7
                  CJPS (2006)                           25



11/20/08               (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   177
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   178
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   179
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   180
Overtranslation of gender—does it matter?

                      Exodus 5:9




 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.”




11/20/08      (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   181
Conclusion




Judging solely on the grounds of semantic accuracy,
rendering   vyIa as “man” is usually inadequate. In those
instances when the usage of “man” can be justified, the
burden of proof is on the translator to show semantic
equivalence in terms of both affiliation and gender.
 11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   182
Online Access

“The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew”
               http://tinyurl.com/ish-affiliation

“The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew”
              http://tinyurl.com/GrammarGender

“Preface,” The Contemporary Torah ( JPS, 2006)
               http://tinyurl.com/CJPS-Preface


           E-mail: davidesstein@aol.com
              Freelance editorial services
11/20/08           (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish   183
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              184
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              185
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              186
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              187
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              188
Summary Table




                                                          Social gender       Social ge
       Deixis       Referential                           per grammar         per cont
       (pointing)   function                              (denotation)        (connota

       Definite     Particular or unique                  Not female          Male

                    Class                                 Not solely female   Typically

       Indefinite   Specific                              Not female          Male

                    Generic                               Not solely female   Male




11/20/08             (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish              189

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The (In)adequacy of “Man” as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun ’ish

  • 1. The (In)adequacy of Man as an English Equivalent of the Biblical Hebrew Noun vyIa David E. S. Stein
  • 2. Frequency vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 2
  • 3. Frequency vyIa 2,183 times 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 3
  • 4. Frequency vyIa 2,183 times Source: TLOT ( Jenni-Westermann) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 4
  • 5. Semantics and Pragmatics vyIa How does this noun function in the Hebrew Bible? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 5
  • 6. Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 6
  • 7. Recent Articles vyIa “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew,” Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 8/1 (2008). “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew,” Hebrew Studies XLIX (2008): 7–26. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 7
  • 8. Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION . . . into English . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 8
  • 9. Today’s Question What are the implications for TRANSLATION into English with regard to semantic content? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 9
  • 10. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 10
  • 11. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 11
  • 12. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. 3. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 12
  • 13. As a Term of Affiliation 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 13
  • 14. As a Term of Affiliation vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 14
  • 15. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 15
  • 16. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference vyIa PARTICIPANT The Situation in Question 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 16
  • 17. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 17
  • 18. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 18
  • 19. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 19
  • 20. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 20
  • 21. As a Term of Affiliation Dual Reference Someone who is an vyIa is an vyIa of of somebody or something else. somebody or something else. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 21
  • 22. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 22
  • 23. Meaning Semantic Components vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 23
  • 24. Meaning = Affiliation Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 24
  • 25. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 25
  • 26. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 26
  • 27. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE AN AFFILIATE FEMALE hDÚvIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 27
  • 28. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 28
  • 29. Meaning = Affiliation +/– Non-femaleness Semantic Components vyIa vyIa AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 29
  • 30. Summary of Findings about the Noun vyIa 1. It is primarily a term of affiliation. 2. Its primary meaning functions independently of its gender content. 3. When it refers to a class (or genus), its gender meaning is muted; it means only that the class (or genus) is not solely female. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 30
  • 31. Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 31
  • 32. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 32
  • 33. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 33
  • 34. Determination and Referential Function Definite vyIa Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 34
  • 35. Meaning = Affiliation vyIa AN AFFILIATE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 35
  • 36. Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 36
  • 37. Determination and Referential Function vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 37
  • 38. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 38
  • 39. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 39
  • 40. Determination and Referential Function Indefinite vyIa Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 40
  • 41. Meaning = Affiliation – Non-femaleness Indefinite vyIa solely AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 41
  • 42. Context May Constrain the Social Gender AN AFFILIATE NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 42
  • 43. Focus of Analysis 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 43
  • 44. Focus of Analysis ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 44
  • 45. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 45
  • 46. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 46
  • 47. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 47
  • 48. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t “Let heavier work be laid upon the MyIvÎnSa.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 48
  • 49. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 49
  • 50. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 50
  • 51. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 51
  • 52. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 52
  • 53. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 53
  • 54. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 54
  • 55. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 55
  • 56. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 56
  • 57. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 57
  • 58. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t solely NOT FEMALE 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 58
  • 59. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 59
  • 60. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 MyIvÎnSaDh_lAo hDdObSoDh dA;bVkI;t laborers, 1 not female 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 60
  • 61. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 1 Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” —NJPS (1962) Similarly RSV, NASB, NIV, NKJV, NET, HCSB, ESV, ISV (alternate) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 61
  • 62. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 62
  • 63. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 63
  • 64. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 64
  • 65. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 65
  • 66. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” mostly male work force 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 66
  • 67. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 67
  • 68. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 68
  • 69. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 69
  • 70. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 70
  • 71. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 71
  • 72. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 72
  • 73. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 73
  • 74. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 74
  • 75. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 75
  • 76. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Moreover, the vyIa Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 76
  • 77. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 77
  • 78. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 78
  • 79. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyDrVxIm yEnyEoV;b MDoDh NEj_tRa hDwhy NE;tˆ¥yÅw MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 79
  • 80. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 80
  • 81. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 81
  • 82. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 82
  • 83. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 83
  • 84. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 84
  • 85. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 85
  • 86. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 86
  • 87. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 87
  • 88. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 88
  • 89. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g NOT FEMALE Definite Class, Particular, or Unique 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 89
  • 90. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 90
  • 91. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hD IvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 91
  • 92. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g or MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm hDvIaDh MA…g 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 92
  • 93. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 MˆyårVxIm X®rRaV;b dOaVm lwødÎ…g hRvOm vyIaDh MA…g n-female no special envoy 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 93
  • 94. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 2 Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NASB, NKJV, HCSB, ISV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 94
  • 95. What is this rendering’s gender sense? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 95
  • 96. Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 96
  • 97. Asymmetry in Gender Markers 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 97
  • 98. Asymmetry in Gender Markers ≠ 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 98
  • 99. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 99
  • 100. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 100
  • 101. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 yîrVbIo_vyIa hR;kAm yîrVxIm vyIa aVrÅ¥yÅw man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) MwølDvVl …whEoérVl_vyIa …wlSaVvˆ¥yÅw man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 101
  • 102. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 man man he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) man each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 102
  • 103. Asymmetry in Gender Markers Exodus 2:11; 18:7 he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew (ESV) each of them asked of the other’s well-being (Alter) 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 103
  • 104. Should this rendering convey gender? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 104
  • 105. Should this rend gender? :3 Exodus 11 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 105
  • 106. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 106
  • 107. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 11:3 Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt. male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 107
  • 108. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 108
  • 109. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 109
  • 110. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 110
  • 111. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 111
  • 112. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 112
  • 113. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw “If the ox of vyIa injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 113
  • 114. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 114
  • 115. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 115
  • 116. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 116
  • 117. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 117
  • 118. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 118
  • 119. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 119
  • 120. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 120
  • 121. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 121
  • 122. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 122
  • 123. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 123
  • 124. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 124
  • 125. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw solely NOT FEMALE Indefinite Generic or Specific 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 125
  • 126. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 126
  • 127. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 127
  • 128. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 128
  • 129. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 a wa hCa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw …whEoér rwøv_tR 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 129
  • 130. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 130
  • 131. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 131
  • 132. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 132
  • 133. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Job 24:3 …whE rwøv_tRa hDnDmVlAa rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 133
  • 134. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 134
  • 135. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 …whEoér rwøv_tRa vyIa_rwøv PO…gˆy_yIkw party to a legal proceeding, regardless of gender 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 135
  • 136. Inaccurate Rendering: Case 3 Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” —NET Bible (1996) Similarly RSV, NKJV, ESV 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 136
  • 137. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 137
  • 138. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 138
  • 139. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 139
  • 140. Does this rendering convey a lack of gender? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 140
  • 141. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 141
  • 142. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male human being 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 142
  • 143. Does this rendering convey affiliation? Exodus 21:35 “If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor . . .” male party 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 143
  • 144. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 144
  • 145. Is this rendering accurate? Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 145
  • 146. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 146
  • 147. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 147
  • 148. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 148
  • 149. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 149
  • 150. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 150
  • 151. The Accuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 151
  • 152. The Inaccuracy of “Man” Exodus Contextual sense Contextual sense Affiliation Gender Passage ofvyI a of “man” Accuracy Accur a c y #1 5:9 Laborers Work force Equivalent 1 not female Mostly male Overstat e d #2 11:3 Special envo y Human bein g Droppe d Not germane Emphatic male Overstat e d #3 21:3 5 Party Party Equivalent Either gende r Male Misstate d 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 152
  • 153. Accurate Rendering as “Man” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 153
  • 154. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 154
  • 155. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl . . . not a dog shall snarl . . . at vyIa or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 155
  • 156. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 156
  • 157. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 1 Exodus 11:7 hDmEhV;b_dAow vyIaEmVl wønOvVl bRlR;k_XårTjRy aøl not a dog shall snarl . . . at man or beast. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 157
  • 158. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 158
  • 159. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 159
  • 160. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 160
  • 161. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores an vyIa or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 161
  • 162. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 162
  • 163. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 163
  • 164. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 164
  • 165. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw . . . rwøÚvAh lAoAb…w . . . 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 165
  • 166. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a party, male or female, to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 166
  • 167. Accurate Rendering as “Man”: Case 2 Exodus 21:28 tEmÎw hDÚvIa_tRa wøa vyIa_tRa rwøv jÅ…gˆy_yIkw when an ox gores a man or woman to death 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 167
  • 168. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 168
  • 169. Where “Man” Is an Accurate Rendering Frequency As gender neutral As opposed to woman, or to deity 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 169
  • 170. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 170
  • 171. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each • one • party • participant • member • fellow • expert • husband • householder • agent • envoy • delegate • candidate • commissioner • deputy • leader • laborer • heir • troop • representative 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 171
  • 172. Mistranslation of affiliation—does it matter? vyIa someone • anyone • each one • man • man • man • • man • man • husband • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man • man 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 172
  • 173. The Difference That Affiliation Makes 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 173
  • 174. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 174
  • 175. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 175
  • 176. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 176
  • 177. The Difference That Affiliation Makes Gender-Sensitive Functional-Equivalence Translations Instances of vyIa (singular) in Genesis: 108 Number of English Translation Equivalents Used NRSV (1989) 10 TNIV (2005) 7 CJPS (2006) 25 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 177
  • 178. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 178
  • 179. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 179
  • 180. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 180
  • 181. Overtranslation of gender—does it matter? Exodus 5:9 “Let heavier work be laid upon the men.” 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 181
  • 182. Conclusion Judging solely on the grounds of semantic accuracy, rendering vyIa as “man” is usually inadequate. In those instances when the usage of “man” can be justified, the burden of proof is on the translator to show semantic equivalence in terms of both affiliation and gender. 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 182
  • 183. Online Access “The Noun vyIa (’iš) in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/ish-affiliation “The Grammar of Social Gender in Biblical Hebrew” http://tinyurl.com/GrammarGender “Preface,” The Contemporary Torah ( JPS, 2006) http://tinyurl.com/CJPS-Preface E-mail: davidesstein@aol.com Freelance editorial services 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 183
  • 184. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 184
  • 185. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 185
  • 186. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 186
  • 187. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 187
  • 188. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 188
  • 189. Summary Table Social gender Social ge Deixis Referential per grammar per cont (pointing) function (denotation) (connota Definite Particular or unique Not female Male Class Not solely female Typically Indefinite Specific Not female Male Generic Not solely female Male 11/20/08 (In)adequacy of “Man” as Equivalent of ’ish 189