1 key terms and overview to movement of people


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Stage 5 History for the Australian Curriculum

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  • World Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Dollars as valued in 1990
  • Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens
  • The spread of migrants to the Americas and Australasia led to the decimation of indigenous peoples such as the Nth American Indians, Incas, Mayans, Inuit, Pacific Islanders and Aboriginals.
    Most adapted to the challenges of the new society, but suffered discrimination which continues to this day.
  • 1 key terms and overview to movement of people

    1. 1. Depth Study One: Movement of People Key Terms and Unit Overview Activity: Please start a “Glossary of Key Terms” in the back of your book. You will be asked to copy ten words and their definitions into this Glossary as we go through this overview of the unit.
    3. 3. Industrialism Begins - 1700s  Industrialism    Before industrialism most people lived in small farming villages   New economic system Rely on machinery rather than animal and human power Began urbanization Began in the “textile” industry   Manchester = machine woven cloth Development of Factories
    4. 4. The Beginnings of Industrialization  Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain   New Ways of Working    Begins in the mid 1700s greatly increased output of machine-made goods Movement of people from rural areas to cities The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way    Enclosures – large farm fields enclosed by fences Wealthy landowners buy & enclose land once owned by village farmers pushing them off the land Enclosures allow experimentation with new agricultural methods
    5. 5. Why did the IR begin in Britain?  Britain had all of the factors of production  Land, labour, and capital  Britain had the necessary natural resources  Coal, iron, rivers, harbours  Expanding economy encouraged further development
    6. 6. Keyword: capitalism An economic system based on private ownership and free-market enterprise.
    7. 7. Inventions Spur Industrialisation  Changes  Flying in the Textile Industry Shuttle (1733) John Kay  Doubled the work a weaver could do in a day 
    8. 8. Inventions Spur Industrialisation  Spinning Jenny (1764) James Hargreaves  One spinner could work eight threads at a time 
    9. 9. Inventions Spur Industrialisation  Power Loom (1787) Edmund Cartwright  Sped up the weaving process 
    10. 10. The First Factories
    11. 11. James Watt and the Steam Engine
    12. 12. Robert Fulton and the Clermont
    13. 13. Rapid Population Growth
    14. 14. Rapid Economic Growth
    15. 15. Percentage of World GDP Europe & U.S. vs. Asia The economic centre of the world moved from Asia to Europe
    16. 16. The Railway Age Begins  Railroad Revolutionizes Life  The Railroad System  Spurs industrial growth  Creates jobs  Cheaper transportation  Boosts many industries  People move to cities Stephenson’s “Rocket” World’s best locomotive
    17. 17. 'Industrial Manchester from Kersal Moor', William Wylde, 1851. Examine these two paintings from the period. In what sense do the two paintings differ from each other in the impression they give of 1800s Manchester? 'Inaugural journey of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway', A.B. Clayton, 1830
    18. 18. Industrialisation-Social Impacts  Industrialisation   Urbanisation    Factory Work  Pays more than farmwork  Creates demand for more expensive goods Movement of people to city Population growth provides increased work force and bigger markets for goods Specialisation  Different cities develop to produce specific goods, e.g. Manchester (cotton), Newcastle (wool), Sheffield (cutlery), Durham (coal).
    19. 19. Negative Impacts of The Industrial Revolution  Living Conditions  Rapid Urbanisation caused:  Cities without adequate housing, education, and police protection  Urban slums  Disease and sickness spread quickly  Life span is only 17 years  Lack of sanitary & building codes
    20. 20. Social Change –The Working Class  Working Conditions         Average workday – 14-16 hours 6 days a week, year round Dirty, poorly lit, dangerous factories Numerous injuries and death No health insurance No labor laws Eventually replaced by machines Huge population means large unemployment
    21. 21. Social Change – The Rise of the Middle Class  The Middle Class  Factories helped to create a new group of people – the middle class Skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, managers and professionals  Had a comfortable standard of living   Looked down upon by aristocrats and landowners
    22. 22. Empires & Colonies European Empires 1700 European nations fought for control of colonies to gain access to raw materials and provide new lands for their expanding populations
    23. 23. Keyword: empire (Adjective is imperial) a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled by a Monarch
    24. 24. Keyword: colony A territory under the immediate political control of a foreign Empire.
    25. 25. Social ChangeMovement of People Overcrowded conditions in Europe and the demand for land and labour pushed millions of people out of Europe and pulled them across the world – as • • • • slaves, indentured labourers, assisted migrants or free settlers.
    26. 26. New World The Americas, and the new colonies in Australasia, Africa and Asia which provided raw materials
    27. 27. Keyword: middle passage The travel route used to transport slaves from Africa to the Americas and the Carribean The demand for labor in the ‘New World’ stimulated a profitable three-legged trading pattern European manufactured goods went to Africa where they were exchanged for slaves The slaves were then shipped to the Caribbean and Americas where they were sold for cash or sometimes bartered for sugar or molasses Then the ships returned to Europe loaded with American products
    28. 28. Social ChangeSlavery and ‘Blackbirding” 12 million Africans were transported to the Americas between 1700-1850  Slavery was abolished from the early 1800s due to the ongoing opposition to this inhumane system.  Slavery was replaced by Indentured Labour.  In Australia 62 500 Pacific Islanders were ‘blackbirded’ between 1750 and 1900.  Blackbirding was abolished following public pressure in Australia 
    29. 29. Keyword: chattel slavery A system in which people and their labour are bought and sold as property (chattels).
    30. 30. Keyword: blackbirding The kidnapping of Pacific Islander people through trickery or force to be used as labourers in the New World.
    31. 31. Movement of People – Convict Transportation to Australia Transportation of convicts came about due to overpopulation of Britain. • Between 1788 and 1868, the British sent 162 000 convicts to Australia. • These convicts provided the cheap labour for the European settlement of Australia. •
    32. 32. Social Change – Assisted Migrants & Free Settlers • • • • The ‘new world’ promised riches on goldfields and streets “paved with gold”. Irish and Italians who faced starvation were forced to migrate Scots and British lost farmland in the Enclosure Acts. Jews and Protestants escaped religious persecution.
    33. 33. Keyword: indentured labour A system in which workers enter contracts to work at reduced wages for a certain period of time, usually far from home.
    34. 34. Social Change– Impacts on Indigenous Peoples • Migration totally changed the lives and cultures of indigenous peoples throughout the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. • Many died in conflicts or from new diseases and became excluded from their own land. • In Australia, Aboriginal population declined from an estimated 4 000 000 in 1788 to as little as 100 000 by 1900.
    35. 35. Keyword: segregation Separation of people on the basis of race or ethnicity
    36. 36. Keyword: xenophobia Having a hatred or fear of foreigners or foreign cultures and customs
    37. 37. Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution  Immediate Benefits       Creates jobs Enriches nation Encourages technological progress Education expands Cheaper goods, including clothing Long Term Effects     Improved standard of living Improved working conditions Increase in taxes lead to urban improvements Increased global interconnection
    38. 38. Where to now?  Our focus will now turn to the stories of the movement of many different groups of people that occurred as part of the industrial revolution.  These stories will help us to understand the diversity of modern society and to better understand our different backgrounds and shared future
    39. 39. THE END